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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Which is more common; forelimb or hindleg lameness?
What is the reciprocal apparatus made up of and does it make small changes in the horse's gait more or less obvious?
*set of:
- tensionally coadjusted
- tendons and
- muscles
* responsible for causing hock and stifle to flex in unison thereby making sm. changes less obvious
Which lameness (hind or front) is more difficult and what is not a symptom in hindleg lameness?
Hindleg lameness is more difficult and there is no head/neck accentuator
Why is palpation more difficult in hindleg?
Because of the large muscle mass
What are the 8 steps in a hindleg lameness examination?
1. Signalment
2. History (Hx)
3. Observation (hip hike)
4. Palpation
5. Manipulation
6. Local anaesthesia
7. Radiography
8. Ancillary procedures
What are the parts of manipulation?
1. hoof tester exam
2. flexion tests
a) fetlock flexion
b) hock/stifle flexion (spavin test)
3. stifle manipulations
4. rectal exam
What are the parts of the ancillary procedures? (6)
1. Synoviocentesis
2. Ultrasonography
3. Nuclear Scintigraphy
4. Thermography
5. CT scan
6. MRI
What is Spavin?
Degenerative osteoarthritis of the distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints
What are the signs of Spavin? (4)
1. often chronic lameness
2. often poor hock conformation (cow, sickle, straight hocked)
3. history of concussive work
4. may be palpable or obvious bony enlargement of the distal, medial hock area
What is the diagnosis for Spavin? (4)
1. History and clinical signs
2. + hock flexion (spavin test)
3. intra-articular anaesthesia
4. radiographs
What are the treatments for Spavin?
1. rest and antiinflammatories
2. work and antiinflams to hasten bony fusion (+/-)
3. intra-articular injections
(steroids, PSGAG's?HAs)
4. oral supplements containing chondroitin and glucosamine
What is Osteochondrosis (OCD)?
Defect in endochondral ossification (conversion of cartilage to bone during fetal development)
What might OCD lead to?
Bone Cysts, Chips, Fractures, ect
What are the sings of OCD? (3)
1. most commonly affects stifle, hock, but any joints may be involved
2. often causes lameness and joint swelling
3. May be incidental finding, not causing pain, lameness, or swelling.
What is the diagnosis for OCD?
1. History and clinical signs
2. Intra-articular anaesthesia
3. Radiogaphs
What are the treatments for OCD?
1. Medical: -rest and antiinflams, -joint injections, -if not a cause of lameness, no treatment
2. Surgical
What is Patellar Fixation?
"locking" of patela on femur
What horses are often affected by Patellar Fixation?
Young horses freshly into work, training
What are the symptoms of Patellar Fixation?
1. leg is held in extensionfor variable period of time
2. unable to flex and advance; leg is dragged straight behind horse until it "snaps" back and gait then becomes normal
Does Patellar Fixation differ in severity?
Yes; severity of the condition is variable from occasional and quicckly resolved to continuous
What are the treatments for Patellar Fixation?
1. Exercise Quadriceps group
2. Inject Patellar Ligaments
3. Estrogen Injections (+/-)
4. **Medial Patellar Desmotomy (cutting of medial pateliar, most common treatment)
5. Stab incisions into medial patellar ligament
What is Stringhalt?
Involuntary spastic flexion of hock/stifle
When is Stringhalt most commonly seen?
When horse is beginning to walk or upon backing up
What is the range of severity of Stringhalt?
From no functional impairment to deilitation
What is the cause of Stringhalt?
Unknown; may be seen in association with EPSM (equine polysaccharide storage myopathy)
What are the treatments for Stringhalt?
1. if mild, no treatment
2. Surgery if flexing is almost constant
-lateral digital extensor tenectomy
What is Ossifying Myositis?
Damage/trauma to semimembranosis and semitendinosis muscles leading to fibrosis/ mineralization/calcification which prevents normal elastic extension of leg when walking
What is the symptom of Ossifying myositis?
The gait is characteristic- the leg is brought forward but then abruptly slaps down in a "goose-stepping" manner
What is the treatment for Ossifying Myositis?
Surgical only
How many bones are in the hind leg?
List the main bones in the hind leg from proximal to distal
Pelvis, Femur, Patella, Tibia, Tarsus, Cannon bone, Splint bones (2), Sesamoid bone, navicular bone
List the main blood supply route starting at heart to hoof of hind leg (one large continuous artery; name differs with location in body though)
Aorta, External iliacs, Femoral artery, Popliteal artery, Great Metatarsal artery, Digital Arteries
List the Nerve supply from the spinal cord to the end of hind leg (one continuous nerve; name changes with body location).
-lumbosacral plexus (L4-S2)
-femoral nerve
-obturator nerve
-gluteal nerve
-sciatic nerve
-tibial nerve