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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are 7 ways to approach horse lameness?
-observation of involved limb
-regional anaesthesia
What are some ways of observing which limb is injured? 4
-head "nod"
-stand on hard surface
-longe line
What are things to look for during palpation of the leg?
-use hoof tester
-inflammation of limb
What points should flexion tests be used on?
What are the two ways to use anesthesia for leg lameness?
-locally (distal to proximal)
What are the special procedures used in assessing lameness? 6
-synovial fluid analysis
-nuclear scintigraphy
-CT scan
What are 4 specific foreleg lameness'?
1) hoof cracks
2) navicular syndrom
3) Laminitis/Founder
4) Degenerative joint disease
What are some treatments for hoof cracks?
When was navicular syndrome first described?
Which foreleg lameness is estimated to cause 1/3 of all chronic foreleg problems?
-navicular syndrome
Which horses are more prone to NS and what helps determine how bad it is?
-older, large bodied with small feet, quarter horses.
*upright foot/fetock angle plays part as well
-work history, concussion, and trauma to foot all determine severity
Which structures may be part of NS? 6
-navicular bone
-deep flexor tendon
-navicular bursa
-coffin joint
-navicular ligaments
What is NS etiology (4 reasons for development)?
-ischemia/thrombosis leading to degeneration
-pressure and trauma (DDF)
-degenerative joint disease
-still unknown
What are signs/diagnoses of NS?
-chronic, progressive, intermittent, bilateral foreleg lameness
-worse on hard ground and turning
-hoof tester sensitivity
-posterior digital nerve block
(resolves lameness, switch to other leg)
What are 4 ways to treat NS?
1) medical
2) trimming and shoeing
3) surgical
4) shock wave therapy
What are the 4 medical treatments used for NS?
1) phenylbutazone
2) isoxsuprine
3) coffin joint or navicular bursal injections
4) PSGAG/hyaluronic acid systemic treatment
What can be used to treat NS through shoeing/trimming?
-wedge pads
-rolled toe
-bar shoes
*all for balance
What procedure is done to surgically treat NS?
-posterior digital neurectomy
What is the definition of laminitis/founder?
-inflammation and edema of sensitive laminae due to blood flow alteration
What are some reasons for blood flow alterations in laminitis?
-A/V anastomoses bypassing capillary bed
*caused from abnormal carbohydrate metabolism
What leg problem will overweight horses most likely have?
-laminitis (from hypothryoidism, Cushinoid)
What are the signs/diagnosis of laminitis?
-usually bilateral
-warm feet
-digital pulse
-front legs out, hind legs up supporting weight
-land heel-toe
-hoof tester sensitivity
How can you medically diagnose laminitis?
-radiography (sinking of coffin bone, evaluate rotation)
-nerve block of abaxial sesamoid usually resolves lameness
What are signs of chronic founder?
-chronic lameness
-acute episodes
-concave dorsal hoof wall
-"founder rings"
-"slippered" feet (curling up of hoof)
How do you treat chronic founder?
-trimming and shoeing
How do you treat acute laminitis?
-cold therapy
-sole and frog support
-trimming and shoeing
What is degenerative joint disease?
-osteoarthritis that involves progressive damage to articular cartilage
What are the changes that occur in horses with DJD?
-secondary soft tissue changes
-bony changes (ex; spurring)
-synovial fluid changes (becomes thin and watery)
What is problematic if synovial fluid begins changing?
-no cartilage protection
-less nutrition offered
-less lubrication
What are signs/diagnosis of DJD?
-often chronic, progressive lameness (may be acute though)
-may be joint distention, pain on flexion, drecreased range of motion
-positive flexion test
-intra-articular anaesthesia/nerve block
What are treatments of DJD?
-intraarticular medications
-systemic medications and supplements
What are the intraarticular medication used in DJD?
-increased lubrication; decreased lytic enzymes; increased cartilage regeneration
How would you give supplements or systemic medications for DJD?
-oral (glucosamine, chondroitin)
How many bones are in the foreleg (what are they?)?
21: scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpal bones (8), cannon bone, splint bones, P1, P2, P3, (long, short, and coffin bones), sesamoids (2x), navicular bone
How many muscles make up the foreleg?
List the five muscle groups and what they attach?
-muscles of shoulder girdle (attaches foreleg to head, neck, and trunk)
-muscles of hsoulder (attaches scapula to arm)
-muscles of the arm (grouped around humerus
-extensor divisions (attaches to P1,2,3
-flexor division (opposite extensor)
What is the nerve supply of the foreleg in horse?
Brachial plexus (composed of spinal nerves C5-T2)
What are 11 nevrves that contribute to the brachial plexus?
-musculocutaneous nerve
-median nerve
-ulnar nerve
-radial nerve
-long thoracic
-external thoracic
What are the arteries that contribute to the foreleg in the horse?
-brachial artery
-median arter
-common digital artery
-digital artery
What are the veins that contribute to the foreleg of the horse?
-digital veins
-common digital veins
-metacarpal vein
-median vein
-brachial vein
-vena cava
What are 4 parasitic dermatologic conditions?
-cutaneous habronemiasis
-cutaneous onchocerciasis
-pediculosis (lice)
-mange (mites)
What are the fungal dermatologic conditions?
What are the bacterial dermatoses?
-scratches ("grease heel")
What are the immune mediated dermatoses?
-nodular collagenolytic granuloma (nodular necrobiosis)
What is cutaneous habronemiasis?
-summer sores
-abberrant intradermal migration of larvae of stomach worms and hypersensitivity to them.
How are summer sores transmitted?
-house flies and stable flies deposit on wounds or warm, moist areas
-creates ulcerating, enlarging, non-healing wounds
How is cutaneous habronemiasis diagnosed?
-biopsy (Bollinger bodies)
How do you treat Habronemiasis?
-wound care
-fly control
What is cutaneous onchocerciasis?
-dermatitis caused by hypersensitivity of an individual horse to antigens released by dead microfilariae
Describe cutaneous onchocerciasis?
-may or may not be pruritic
Describe the lesions caused by cutaneous onchocerciasis?
Characterized by inflammatory scaling and depigmentation on:
-ventral midline
How can you diagnose cutaneous onchocerciasis?
-wet preparation
How can you treat cutaneous onchocerciasis?
-ivermectin (skin clear for 4-5 minutes).
What are three types of sucking lice?
-Trichodectes pilosus
-Trichodectes equi
-Haematopinus asini
Where are lice usually found?
-in dirty surroundings
-most commonly seen in winter
What can lice cause?
-self trauma due to intense pruritis
-anorexia, anemia, weight loss, and depression can result from heavy infestations
How can you diagnose lice?
-lice on head, neck, mane, and tail
How can you treat lice?
What are three types of mange?
1) sarcoptic mange
2) psoroptic mange
3) chorioptic mange
Which of the three manges affect man as well (zoonotic)?
-sarcoptic mange
Where does sarcoptic mange most frequently occur?
*can spread throughout body and make horse systemically ill
Describe mange in terms of appearance
How can you diagnose sarcoptic mange?
-skin scrapings
Where is psoroptic mange found on a horse?
Describe what psoroptic mange looks like.
-very pruritic
Where is chorioptic mange mostly found on horses?
-lower limbs
-around pasterns
-around fetlocks
What does chorioptic mange look like?
How can you diagnose chorioptic mange?
-skin scrapings
How can you treat chorioptic mange?
What is ringworm also known as?
What does ringworm look like?
-peripheral spread
-variable pruritic
Describe ringworm lesions?
-slightly raised, hyper pigmented border
-depressed, scaly center
-may become confluent
Can ringworm affect man, and if so, how does it spread?
Yes, it is spread through contact with horse or its tack
How do you treat ringworm?
-betadine shampoos
What is dermatophilus?
-known as "rain scald"
-non-pruritic, but sensitive
-lesions on dorsum
-occurs seasonally (wet months, fall and spring)
-supposedly contagious
Describe lesions of dermatophilus.
-crusting and scabs with hair projecting through
-underlying raw areas with or without pus
How do you treat dermatophilus?
-betadine shampoo
-may add antibiotics
What are scratches?
-known as "grease heel"
-oily dermatitis on back of pastern and heels
What horses get scratches?
-breeds with long hair around pasterns/heels
-breeds under muddy conditions (especially if they have heel trauma)
What are the signs of scratches?
How do you treat scratches?
-iodine shampoo
-antiseptic/steroid ointment
-keep in dry environment
What is pemphigus?
-a generalized systemic disease
-auto-immune (horse produces antibodies against it's own skin/other organs).
What are the 9 (or 10) signs of pemphigus?
-weight loss
-painful and pruritic
How do you diagnose pemphigus?
How do you treat pemphigus?
What is nodular collagenolytic granuloma cuased by/from?
-possible hypersensitivity to insect bites
Describe nodular collagenolytic granuloma.
-firm nodules on back, withers, neck, and girth
How do you diagnose nodular collagenolytic granuloma?
How can you treat nodular collagenolytic granuloma?
-steroids (local or systemic)