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35 Cards in this Set

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vasodilator released locally at sites of trauma, inflammation and allergic reaction
histamine
How is histamine synthesized?
from histidine via histadine decarboxylase
where is the H1 receptor found and what does it cause?
smooth muscle, endothelium, CNS tissue; causes vasodilation, bronchoconstriction, vascular permeability, smooth muscle activation, pain and itching
Where is the H2 receptor found and how does it function
gastric parietal cells---stimulates secretion of gastric acid
what cells release histamine
basophils and mast cells
how is histamine degrated
histamine N-methyltransferase and diamine oxidase, also possibly taken up by a transporter
generic name for Allegra
fexofenadine
generic name for Benadryl
diphenhydramine
generic name for Claritin
Loratadine
suppression of edema, flare and pruitis can result from blocking which histamine receptor
H1
causes relaxation of smooth muscle via cGMP pathway
nitric oxide
enzyme that synthesizes NO
nitric oxide synthas (NOS)
Processing, packaging and secretion of NO
None--NO diffused out of cell immediately
positive regulators of NO? negative?
+: ACh, bradykinin, shear stress, nitrovasodilators, cytokines
-: glucocorticoids
NO plays role in cardiovasular, beta cell, respiratory, immune system, and vascular disease. What treatments are used to incrase NO activity?
nitrovasodilators and inhibitors of cGMP phosphodiesterase
vasoconstrictor that induces platelet aggregation during clotting
thromboxane
which two eicosanois are antagonistic?
thromboxane and prostacyclin
vasodilator that inhibits platelet aggregation
prostacyclin
what drugs inhibit COX1 and COX2
aspirin, NSAIDS
what is immediate precursor of prostacyclin?
PGH2
eicosanoids that function in chemotaxis, inflammation and allergic reactions
leukotrienes
leukotriene that recruits neutrophils and eosinophils to site of inflammation
LTB4
eicosanoids that mediate muscle contration, inflammation, calcium movement and hormone regulation
prostaglandins
Diacylglycerol and phospholipics are converted to arachidonic acid by what 2 enzymes?
phospholipase C and phospholipase A, respectively
PGH2 sythase converts arachidonic acid into PGH2. What two enzymes make up PGH2 synthase?
it is a combo of peroxidase and COX1 or COX2
What eicosanoids are made from PGH2?
prostaglandins, thromboxane, and prostacyclin
Lipooxygenase converts arachidonic acid to what?
HPETE--the precursor to the leukotrienes
how to leukotrienes assist in pathophysiology of asthma?
airflow obstuction due to bronchoconstrictin, increased secretion of mucus, infiltration of inflammatory cells
what diseases are associated with eicosanoids?
inflammation, allergic reactions, asthma, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis
collective name for phosopholipase A2 inhibitory proteins
lipocortins
what blocks pathways of eicosanoid synthesis by stimulating synthesis of lipocortins
corticosteroids
irreversible inhibitor of COX? competetive inhibitors?
aspirin; ibuprofen and acetaminophen
(NSAIDS)
P450 catalyzes what conversion?
cholesterol to pregnenolone
what is the precursor of progesterone? progesterone is a precursor for what 2 hormones?
pregnenolone is precursor for progesterone; progesterone is a precursor for corticosterone and aldosterone
hormone produced by adrenal cortex that increases blood pressure, blood glucose, and suppresses the immune system
cortisol