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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Endocrine
– released into bloodstream to act on target tissues
hormonal communication vs. neural communication
Hormones act in a gradual fashion
A hormone may have multiple effects and one behavior can be affected by several hormones
Hormones often have pulsatile secretion – in bursts
Some hormones are controlled by circadian clocks
Protein hormones act more rapidly than steroids
Protein and amine hormones bind to specific receptors on the surface of a cell release a second messenger in the cell
Steroid hormones act more slowly
Steroid hormones pass through the cell membrane and bind to receptors inside the cell

The steroid-receptor complex binds to DNA and acts as a transcription factor – controlling gene expression
Tropic hormones
- pituitary hormones that affect other endocrine glands
Releasing hormones
from hypothalamus control pituitary’s release of tropic hormones
Endocrine Feedback Loops
Tropic hormones - pituitary hormones that affect other endocrine glands

Releasing hormones from hypothalamus control pituitary’s release of tropic hormones
Posterior pituitary secretes two hormones
Vasopressin, or antidiuretic hormone (ADH) – increases blood pressure and inhibits urine formation
Oxytocin – Maternal behaviors Autism?
Two Hormones are Produced in the Hypothalamus for Posterior Pituitary Secretion
The hypothalamus makes two additional hormones: OT (oxytocin) and ADH (antidiuretic hormone). The hypothalamus does NOT secrete these hormones, however. Instead, the neurons that make the hormones transport the hormones to their axonal terminals. These axonal terminals are located in the posterior pituitary.
adh: supraoptic nucleus
ot:paraventriucular nucleus
Hypothalamus

There are two portions to any description of the hypothalamic hormones:
The hypothalamus secretes tropic hormones exclusively into the blood vessels within the hypothalamus. These tropic hormones are going to affect the anterior pituitary.
Meanwhile, the hypothalamus also produces hormones that have direct effects on body tissues. These hormones are those that it secretes within the posterior pituitary.
Hypothalamus

There are two portions to any description of the hypothalamic hormones:
The hypothalamus secretes tropic hormones exclusively into the blood vessels within the hypothalamus. These tropic hormones are going to affect the anterior pituitary.
Meanwhile, the hypothalamus also produces hormones that have direct effects on body tissues. These hormones are those that it secretes within the posterior pituitary.
Oxytocin and vasopressin are important for bonding
In women, oxytocin facilitates lactation and infant bonding
Oxytocin rises in women in affectionate relationships, and in women in distressed relationships. Oxytocin may signal the need to seek social contact.
Autism treatment?





Oxytocin contributes to recognition of social cues in men
Men with a particular vasopressin receptor gene are more likely to be unmarried or to have had a recent marital crisis
In women, oxytocin facilitates
lactation and infant bonding
Oxytocin rises in women in affectionate relationships, and in women in distressed relationships. Oxytocin may signal the need to seek social contact.
Autism treatment?
Oxytocin contributes to recognition of social cues in men
Men with a particular vasopressin receptor gene are more likely to be unmarried or to have had a recent marital crisis
Secretions of the Anterior Pituitary
Hypothalamic neurons synthesize releasing hormones

Releasing hormones are secreted into local blood vessels

Releasing hormones are carried to anterior pituitary, which releases hormones
Adrenal cortex
secretes steroid hormones

Cortisol is a stress hormone that increases blood glucose and breaks down protein
Cortisol
is a stress hormone that increases blood glucose and breaks down protein
Adrenal medulla releases:
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
Iodine deficiency
causes cretinism
Thyroid hormones contain
iodine and depend on its supply

A goiter is a swelling of the thyroid gland in the neck from iodine deficiency

Early thyroid deficiency results in cretinism with mental retardation
Early thyroid deficiency results in
cretinism with mental retardation
A goiter
is a swelling of the thyroid gland in the neck from iodine deficiency
Cushing’s disease
results from long-term excess glucocorticoids, with fatigue and depression
Sex is like hunger and thirst:
It involves arousal and satiation
It has hormonal control
It is controlled by specific areas of the brain
Sex is unlike hunger and thirst:
It is not a homeostatic tissue need
Individuals don’t require sex for survival, but species do
Sex is unlike hunger and thirst:
It is not a homeostatic tissue need
Individuals don’t require sex for survival, but species do
Sex is like hunger and thirst:
It involves arousal and satiation
It has hormonal control
It is controlled by specific areas of the brain
social influence hypothesis,
which emphasizes home environment or early seduction as causes of homosexuality
Sexual Orientation Brain’s Role in Homosexuality
The INAH3 (third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus) was female-sized (smaller) in gay men
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN
SCN) is larger in gay men than in heterosexual men and contained more vasopressin-secreting cells
Anterior commissure
is larger in gay men and heterosexual women than in heterosexual men
Transsexual males
have a female-sized (smaller) central bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTc)
Sexual Orientation Brain’s Role in Homosexuality
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is larger in gay men than in heterosexual men and contained more vasopressin-secreting cells
Anterior commissure is larger in gay men and heterosexual women than in heterosexual men
Gay men’s verbal and spatial performance is more similar to women’s than to heterosexual men’s
Brain response of gays and lesbians to presumed pheromones is more like that of the other sex
Transsexual males have a female-sized (smaller) central bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTc)
Hormonal Influence
Male homosexuals and heterosexuals have same testosterone level
Any hormonal influence on homosexuality likely occurs prenatally
Little evidence that brains of lesbians are masculinized prenatally.
They perform like heterosexual females on verbal and spatial tests.

However, CAH females are exposed to excess androgens prenatally and are more likely to have lesbian or bisexual orientation

Lesbians are like males in two characteristics of prenatal androgen exposure:
index-to-ring finger ratio
click-evoked otoacoustic emissions
Testes
secrete testosterone
SRY gene
sex-determining region on Y chromosome
Responsible for development of testes. Without an SRY gene, an ovary forms

X Chromosome from Mom
X or Y Chromosome from Dad
Organizing effects
mostly occur prenatally and shortly after birth
They affect structure and are lifelong
Activating effects
can occur at any time in life
They come and go with hormonal fluctuations or are long lasting, but are reversible
Hormone surges trigger both organizing and activating effects at puberty
Organizing effects:
Maturation of genitalia
Growth spurt
Activating effects at puberty:
Breast growth in girls and egg release during menstrual cycle;
production of sperm, muscle development, hair growth in boys;
and a dramatic increase in sexual interest
Ovaries
produce progesterone and estrogens
sexually receptive, or in estrus
Estrogens produced at beginning of ovulatory cycle are important for non-human female sexual behavior


If a female is willing to copulate, she is sexually receptive, or in estrus


Human females do not have estrus cycles
Androgens
Androgens Are Necessary for Male Copulation

This does apply to human males
Sexual Response Curves
Excitement phase (arousal)
During plateau arousal levels off
Orgasm
Resolution follows as arousal falls and body returns to normal
PET imaging of male orgasm
Oxytocin release at ejaculation is blocked by naloxone; men report less pleasurable orgasms during naloxone treatment

Primary activation was found in the ventral tegmental area
Medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus (MPOA)
More important in performance than sexual motivation
The MPOA appears to be more responsible for performance than sexual motivation, when it was destroyed in male monkeys, they no longer tried to copulate, but instead they would masturbate in the presence of a female
Medial amygdala (in the temporal lobe)
Involved in sexual behavior, aggression, and emotions
amygdala is involved not only in sexual behavior but also aggression and emotion. The medial amygdala is active while rats copulate and stimulation causes the release of dopamine in the MPOA. The medial amygdala's role apparently is to respond to sexually exciting stimuli, such as the presence of a potential sex partner
Brain area important for females:
Ventromedial hypothalamus
Receptivity to male advances
Sex: Brain areas important for males
Paraventricular nucleus
important for sexual performance
Sexually dimorphic nucleus
Located in the MPOA
2-3x larger in men
Male sexual activity related to its size
Size depends on prenatal exposure to testosterone
sexually dimporphic nucleus
located in the MPOA, the SDN is five times larger in male rats than in females, a male's level of sexual activity is related to the size of the SDN, which in turn depends on prenatal exposure to testosterone. Destruction of the SDN reduces male sexual activity.
ventromedial hypothalamus
important for sexual behavior in female rats, increases during copulation and its destruction reduces the female's responsiveness to a male's advances
dopamine
Dopamine (DA)
DA activity in the MPOA is involved in sexual motivation in both sexes and is critical for sexual performance in males
Drugs that increase DA increase sexual activity in humans
Increasing levels of DA produce erection in males, then ejaculation
serotonin ( 5HT)
Serotonin (5HT)
Ejaculation is also accompanied by serotonin increases in the lateral hypothala­mus.
Injecting SSRI into lateral hypothala­mus increases the time before male rats attempt to copulate again
Both men and women complain that SSRIs impair their sexual ability
dopamine
dopamine levels increase in the nucleus accumbens during sexual activity, stimulation of the medial amygdala release dopamine in the MPOA. in males, initial small amounts of dopamine stimulate D1 receptors which activate the parasympathetic system and increase motivation and erection , while delayin ejaculation. as dopamine increases, activation of D2 receptors shifts autonomic balance to sympathetic system, resulting in ejacuation. D2 actuvity also inhibits erection, which accounts for sexual refractory period. Drugs that increase dopamine levels increase sexual activity in humans
Sex determination
SRY gene – sex-determining region on Y chromosome – is responsible for development of testes - Without an SRY gene, an ovary forms
Biological Determination of Sex
Organizing effects mostly occur prenatally and shortly after birth
They affect structure and are lifelong
Activating effects can occur at any time in life
They come and go with hormonal fluctuations or are long lasting, but are reversible
Hormone surges trigger both organizing and activating effects at puberty
Organizing effects:
Maturation of genitalia
Growth spurt
Activating effects at puberty:
Breast growth in girls and egg release during menstrual cycle;
production of sperm, muscle development, hair growth in boys;
and a dramatic increase in sexual interest
Organizing effects mostly occur prenatally and shortly after birth
They affect structure and are lifelong
Organizing effects:
Maturation of genitalia
Growth spurt
Activating effects can occur at any time in life
They come and go with hormonal fluctuations or are long lasting, but are reversible
Activating effects at puberty:
Breast growth in girls and egg release during menstrual cycle;
production of sperm, muscle development, hair growth in boys;
and a dramatic increase in sexual interest
Gonadal Hormones Differentiate Brain and Behavior
Testosterone presence masculinizes genitalia and the brain
What masculinizes the brain?
Estradiol!
Sex steroids derive from cholesterol and are interconverted
Estradiol is converted (aromatized) from testosterone
Why doesn’t estradiol masculinize female brains?
Females are protected in development by a-fetoprotein, which binds in blood to maternal estradiol and prevents it from reaching brain (where it would masculinize)
Male Brain
Male:
Testosterone secreted into the blood reaches brain
Testosterone converted to estradiol and dihydrotestosterone in the brain
Estradiol masculinizes the brain
Female Brain
Female:
Alpha-fetoprotein binds to estradiol
Prevents estradiol from entering the brain
Protects female brains from being masculinized by estradiol
Sexual Differentiation of the Brain
Estrogens feminize the female brain
Without estradiol female rats show less sexual interest and receptivity


Estrogens also defeminize the male brain
Without estrogen receptors, male rats show more female-like behavior
Brain Development: Sex Differences
Hemisphere Differentiation
MRI study of 114 patients, aged 56-85 yrs found
women have larger corpus callosum
size of corpus callosum correlates with cognitive skills in women







21 fetal brains were examined and they found:
Males have greater asymmetry than females
Right hemisphere thicker in males than females
Genders: Behavioral and Cognitive Differences
Some girl-boy differences are firm:
Most girls have greater verbal ability than most boys
Most boys excel in visual-spatial ability
Most boys are more aggressive than girls
There are more boys who are great at math than girls; but overall ability is the same

However, there is much overlap between men and women
Spatial ability is affected by masculinization
High estrogen level is associated with
depressed spatial ability
enhanced speech and manual skill tasks
Spatial abilities usually better in boys are enhanced in androgenized girls
The Role of Hormones in Male-Female Differences
Testosterone is related to spatial ability and aggression
Males low in testosterone during development are impaired in spatial ability
Testosterone improves spatial ability in older men
Female transsexuals taking testosterone show spatial improvement, but loss of verbal fluency
Gender-Related Behavioral and Cognitive Differences
Men/women activate different brain areas during learning, pain, stress

Disorders:
Males are more susceptible to autism, Tourette’s syndrome, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
Females are more likely to suffer from depression, anxiety
Men and Women’s Brain Boxes
Young girls' brains tend to mature faster in the front part, which is responsible, among other things, for language learning and controlling aggression and impulsivity For boys, the fastest development is in the back of the brain, which performs visual-spatial tasks at which males tend to excel such as geometry and puzzle-solving
hypothalamus
controls hormone secretions
pineal gland
reproductive maturation, bodily rhythms
pituitary gland
1. anterior pituitary =hormone secretion by thyroid, adrenal cortex, and gonads, growth

2. posterior pituitary- water balance, salt balance
thyroid
growth and development, metabolic rate
adrenal glands
1. adrenal cortex-salt and carbohydrate metabolism, inflammatory reactions

2. adrenal medulla- emotional arousal
pancreas ( islets of langerhans)
sugar metabolism
Gut
digestion and appetite control
gonads ( testes and ovaries)
body development, maintenance of reproductive organs in adults
autism-oxytocin
Oxytocin, the so-called hormone of love, may help promote social skills and social behavior in people with high-functioning autism. Other research has found that children with autism have lower levels of oxytocin than children without autism.
male and female brains
Young girls' brains tend to mature faster in the front part, which is responsible, among other things, for language learning and controlling aggression and impulsivity For boys, the fastest development is in the back of the brain, which performs visual-spatial tasks at which males tend to excel such as geometry and puzzle-solving
cortisol
high in morning, low in evening
hypothalamus
controls hormone secretions
pineal gland
reproductive maturations, bodily rhythms
pituitary gland
anterior pituitary- hormone secretion by thyroid, adrenal cortex and gonads, growth

posterior pitutuitary-water balance and salt balance
thyroid
growth and development, metabolic rate
adrenal glands
adrenal cortex ( outer bark )-salt and carbohydrate metabolism, inflammatory reaction

adrenal medulla ( inner core)- emotional arousal
pancreas ( islets of Langerhans)
sugar metabolism
Gut
digestion and appetite control
Gonads (testes/ovaries)
body development, maintenance of reproductive organs in adult
supraoptic nucleus, and paraventricular nucleus
posterior pituitary, oxytocin and vassopressin
chromosomal sex
XX,XY
gonadal sex
testes and ovaries
internal sex organs
uterus and prostate
external sex organs
vagina and penis
brain sex
females and males brain
gender identity
social affiliation
gender preference
what do you prefer in you partner
clock
clock in brain is vassopressin
Leydig cells
produce testosterone
sertoli
produce sperm
males
have a refractory
SDN
testosterone blocks apoptosis in the SDN
female
have better recoverablity
spina fibida
marker for dev disorder if women dont have alpha -fetoprotein
guy brain aromatizd
makes hypothalamus noncyclic
right side activators and jist of the matter, testosterone
testosterone activates the emotional left side, more detail oriented
Female-initiated activity during the menstrual cycle
activity initiated by women peaks around the middle of the menustrual cycle, which is when ovulation occurs (-14 before ovulation)
relation ship bettween sexual behavior and salivary testosterone levels in men and women
Testosterone increases in women as a result of sexual activity