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96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Exocrine Glands
Secrete products into ducts
Ex. Mucous & Digestive glands, sweat glands
Endocrine Glands
Secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Circulating Hormones
Circulate into bloodstream
Local Hormones
Act locally on neighboring cells without first entering the blood.
No is released by cells lining blood vessels and will cause smooth muscles next to it to relax.
Hormonal Interactions
1.) Hormone Concentration
2.) Abundance of Receptors
3.) Influences exerted by other hormones
Target Cells
Have specific proteins on the outer part of the cell
-Not enough receptor, no action; "Hormonal imbalance."
Deals with hormones that affect/influence other endocrine glands
permissive effect
Sometimes increases the # of receptors for other hormone, and sometimes it promotes the expression of other hormone's effects
antagonistic effects
When one hormone opposes the actions of another hormone
5 releasing hormones that stimulate secretion of anterior pituitary glands.
2 inhibitors that bring about decreasing secretions of the anterior pituitary gland
Pituitary Gland
Secrete hormones to regulate body functions that are released by the releasing & inhibiting hormones by the hypothalamus
Hypothalamic Hormones
Reach the anterior pituitary via the hypothalamic neurosecretory cells that go to capillaries then to pituitary veins.
Human Growth Hormone (HGH)
Most abundant hormone that the anterior pituitary gland produces
Controlled by two hypothalamic releasing hormones;
-Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH) which promotes HGH secretion
-Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) which inhibits HGH
Main function of HGH
acts primarily on bone and muscle.
Promotes the synthesis & secretion of small protein hormones (insulin-like growth factors IGF's) that cause cells to grow and multiply & increases in the growth rate in skeleton & skeletal muscle.
Too much HGH
too little HGH
Excess HGH during adulthood
Prolactin (PRL)
Secreted by anterior pituitary gland. Milk synthesis in females. Affects testes in males
Prolactin Releasing Factor (PRF)
Promotes PRL secretion from hypothalamus
Prolactin-Inhibiting Factor (PIF)
Inhibits PRL secretion from hypothalamus
Posterior Pituitary Gland
Stores and releases two hormones but DO NOT synthesize hormones.
Oxytocin & Antidiuretic Hormones (ADH)
Promotes uteran contractions from the hypothalamus
Antidiuretic Hormones (ADH)
Decreases urine production from the hypothalamus
Thyroid Gland
Has three important hormones T3, T4, & calcitonin
Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormones (TRH)
From the hypothalamus that promotes Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (THS) secretion
Affects growth of thyroid gland & secretion of thyroid hormones
T3 & T4
Regulate metabolism growth & development and affect O2 & glucose breakdown in the body
-Are nearly identical chemically & have the same function
Reduced Thyroid Activity
Hypothyroidism (decreases metabolic rate)
-Will feel cold, tired, and will have a low heart beat < 50
Too Much Thyroid Activity
Hyperthyroidism (elevated metabolism)
-Will lose weight, feel hot, sweat alot, and have bulging eyes (exothalmosis)
Malfunctioning thyroid gland. Large bump on neck. Enlargement of the thyroid gland. Caused my the deficiency of iodine. Iodine is important with making T3 & T4. Over-stimulation of thyroid Gland
can decrease the level of calcium in the blood by inhibiting the action of osteoclasts.
-Increase excretion of the calcium by kidneys
cells that break down bone
-Reducing amount of calcium in blood with osteoclasts
Stimulated by calcitonin for bone formation. Deposit calcium in bone.
Calcium Levels
Can control the secretion of calcitonin
Parathyroid Gland
Embedded in thyroid gland, 4 of them, 2 on each side. Major regulator of calcium levels.
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Increase the number of osteoclast for more calcium to go to blood.
Result in an elevated bone reabsorption of calcium to the blood.
Adrenal Glands
Paired glands that sit about the kidneys
Adrenal Cortex
Outer layer of the adrenal gland
-Produce steroid hormones (derived from cholesterol)
Adrenal Medulla
Inner layer of the adrenal gland
Mineralocorticoids from Adrenal Cortex
Aldosterone is a major part of kidney function by promoting greater re-absorption of Na+ & K+ ions.
-Helps adjust blood pressure
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone of RAA Pathway
Renin helps stimulate angiotensin which stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone (Increases blood pressure)
Vasoconstrictor that raises blood pressure
Steroid hormone from Adrenal Cortex that helps regulate metabolism and helping to have resistance to stress.
-95% are cortisol
Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH)
Secreted by the hypothalamus to promote ACTH secretion
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
From the anterior pituitary, target organ: Adrenal Cortex
Stimulates growth of adrenal cortex & secretion of glucocorticoids
Effects of glucocorticoids
1.) Protein Breakdown
2.) Glucose Formation
3.) Resistance to Stress
4.) Anti-Inflammatory
5.) Organ Transplants: prevent rejection
Cushing's Syndrome
Excess amount of glucocorticoids
-Redistribution of fat: moon face & skinny arms
Addison's Disease
Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids
-Improper fat, sugar, & protein breakdown: mental problems
-weight loss, muscular weakness, hypoglycemia
Adrenal Medulla
Inner region of the adrenal gland
-Synthesize two major hormones
1.) Epinephrine
2.) Norepinephrine
Flight or Fight
-Promote increase in heart rate
-Increase in blood pressure
-Dilate passageways in lungs to increase intake of O2
Endocrine & Exocrine gland that has one to two million clusters of endocrine glands
Alpha Cells
Hormone secreting cells from the pancreas that secrete glucagon
Increased blood glucose levels when below normal
Beta Cells
Secrete Insulin
Low blood glucose levels...
alpha cells from pancreatic islets secrete glucagon
Glucagon will act on...
hepatocytes (liver cells) for them to convert glycogen to glucose
Hepatocytes release
glucose & blood glucose levels rise
High glucose levels...
inhibits the release of glucagon (negative feedback) and stimulates the secretion of insulin by beta cells
High blood glucose...
stimulates secretion of insulin by beta cells
Insulin facilitates...
diffusion of glucose into cells
Blood glucose levels...
If blood glucose levels fall below normal...
stop secretion of insulin (negative feedback) and release of glucagon
Diabetes Mellitus
An inability to produce or use insulin
-Decrease in tissue sensitivity to insulin
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
(Insulin-Dependent Diabetes)
-Insulin level is low because the person's immune system destroys the beta cells. -Young People.
-Deficiency in insulin production.
-AKA Juvenile Diabetes.
-Treat with Insulin
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
(Insulin Dependent)
-Occurs in obese people over 35
-Beta cells commonly are fine but receptors are inefficient & insulin can't affect right target cells.
-Lack of exercise & bad diet can onset this
-Sac that contains the testes
-Hangs outside of the body for lower temp ~3degrees lower
Cremaster Muscles
Can elevate scrotum to body for body heat
-Paired glands made of serous membrane (Covers cavity w/o opening to outside)
-Tunica vaginalis
*past the vaginalis is another white fibrous capsule
Seminiferous Tubule
-Where sperm are produced (spermatogenisis)
-sperm will mature in tests at 300 million per day
Sperm Head
-Where nucleus is (Contains DNA)
In sperm head
-contains lysosome (enzyme that aids in the penetration of the egg)
Sperm Tail
Mitochondria: ATP production
Propels Sperm
Hormonal Control of Spermatogenisis
Onset of puberty
-The anterior pituitary will increase the secretion of gonotropic hormones
1.) FSH: produce sperm
2.) LH: secretion of testosterone
Hypothalamus hormone that promotes FSH & LH
Steroli Cells
In seminiferous tubule that produce inhibin that inhibits the secretion of FSH when sperm is ready
Sperm Flow
Testes -> Ductus Epididymus -> Vas Deferens -> Seminal Vesicle -> Prostate Gland -> Cowper's Gland
Accessory Glands
Seminal Vesicle, Prostate Gland, & Cowper's Gland
-Aid in mobility
-Supply nutrients for sperms (fructose & sugars)
-Buffer urethra for safe travel
Seminal Vesicle
Secrete alkaline fluid that produce 60% of semen (fructose)
Prostate Gland
Donut shaped gland that surrounds the urethra
-Vas deferens changes to ejaculatroy duct when it gets to here.
-Acidic fluid (acetic acid)
-25% of overall semen
Cowper's Gland
Helps to lubricate the male urethra and secretes an alkaline material to help protect the sperm from urethral acids.
40,000 eggs in each ovary.
site of egg production
one egg per month
Functions of ovary
1.) ovary production
2.) Hormone Production
Immature Follicle
A few days after the beginning of menstruation, new reproductive cycle starts
Gonadotropins (FSH & LH)
secreted by the Ant. Pit that stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles & secretion of estrogen (FSH) and ovulation & maintenance of corpus luteum of ovary (LH)
Graafian Follicle
Mature Follicle Day 11-14
Bursting of egg out of follicle
-Estrogen dominated period that promotes female characteristics and helps to ensure a normal pregnancy
-LH is relased and ovulation * maintenance of corpus leutum occurs
Corpus Luteum produces...
Progesterone & some estrogen
Helps egg implant into uteran wall to build wall back for fertilization
Corpus Albicans
Occurs if pregnancy doesn't
If pregnancy happens...
corups luteum will function for 5-6 months then the placenta will take over the production of progestrone
Fallopian tubes
Have fimbrae to grab egg and the egg will go down the tube.
-Where fertilization occurs
-If not fertilized, egg will regenerate & be reabsorbed
-If fertilization occurs, egg fuses to uteran wall
First 2-3 months
3-9 months
Bottom of uterus that a small ring that separates the uterus from the vagina
Monthly cycle- After the onset of ovulation; if pregnancy does not occur
Hypothalamus secretes GnRH -> Pituitary -> FSH -> Stimulation & Growth of follicle -> Increase estrogen -> Inhibition of FSH -> LH Production -> Ovulation & corpus luteum stimulation -> Increase in progesterone -> Inhibition of LH -> decrease in progesterone -> Mensturation
The Pill
-Combination of synthetic estrogen & progesterone (progestin)
-Tricks body into thinking it's pregnant
-High levels of estrogen inhibits FSH NON-production to not develop egg
-Increase in progesterone inhibits LH, ovulation doesn't occur