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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
wrote "I think, therefore I am"
Rene Descartes
inented the first microscope
Zacharias Jansen
stated that planets moved around the sun im elliptical orcits instead of circles
Johannes Kepler
the founder of modern chemistry
Robert Boyle
Built a telescope and studied moons, stars, and planets
Galileo Galilei
Introduced a vaccine to prevent smallpox
Edward Jenner
Developed a law of universal gravitation
Isaac Newton
Made a mercury thermometer and showed water freezing at 32F
Gabriel Farenheit
Developed the first mercury barometer
Evangelista Torticelli
Dissected human corpses and created a book with drawings of human organs, bones, and muscle
Andreas Vesalius
Examined the justice system, believing it to preserve social order
Cesare Beccaria
Believed that people have the rights to life, liberty, and poverty
John Locke
Wrote "On the Spirit of Laws" and advocated separation of powers and checks & balances
Baron de Montesquieu
Salon Hostess
Marie Therese Geoffrin
Wrote "The Social Contract" and said "man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains"
Rousseau
Wrote LEVIATHAN and believed that an absolute monarchy is the best form of government
Thomas Hobbes
Wrote the encyclopedia
Denis Diderot
Wrote satires and said "I do not agree with a word you say but i will defend to the death your right to say it."
Voltaire
What is the difference between geocentric theory and heliocentric theory?
Geocentric theory is the thought that the Earth was the center of the universe; heliocentric theory was the fact that the sun was the center of the solar system.
List the 5 concepts of the philosophes.
1. Reason
2. Nature
3. Happiness
4. Progres
5. Liberty
Define social contract
people had to give up some of their rights in exchange for law and order
define salon
a meeting place in wealthy women's houses where philosophes and intellects met and discussed ideas
define enlightened despot
monarchs who claimed to be enlightened so that they would not lose their throne
What steps did Peter the Great take to modernize Russia?
introduced factories, made the Russians wear European clothing, he introduced potatoes to the Russian people which became a main staple of their diet. Allowed women to have a social status
Kings
Nobles
Knights
Peasants
European Feudal System
taxes
crowded cottages
hardships
manor life
Key characteristics of the Germanic Kingdoms
-Disruption of trade
-Downfall of cities
-Population shifts
-Decline of learning
-Loss of a common language
-Different concept of government
Why are the kings and the Church in conflict with each other?
Kings were getting more important, and both parties wanted the power all for themselves
The Great Schism
Period of time when the Church has two popes
John Wycliffe
Jesus was the head of the Church, not the pope.

Bible was the central authority not the pope

He was from England
Jan Hus
taught that the authority of the Bible was higher than the pope.

excommunicated and executed
origins of the plague
fleas on infected rats that were carried on ships
Symptoms of the plague
Black bruising
coughing up blood
red spots
red ring
high fever
chills
Effects of the plague
music
population exponentially decreased
trade declined
ruralization
loss of faith in the church
discrimination between Muslims and Jews
priests left duties
chaos
serfs left manors
Cause of the 100 Years War
- control of the French throne
- control of land
- England wants to regain control of France
Victor of the 100 YW
French
the longbow
new weapon that allowed for accuracy and maximum death

English introduced it
Joan of Arc
fought for the French
captured by the English
Effects of the 100 YW
Nationalism emerged
FrenchMonarchs increased power
War of the Roses
Chivalry dies
End of the Middle ages
Why was Italy the birthplace of the Renaissance?
City-States
Merchants
Classical Heritage of Greece and Rome
What are some Renaissanc values?
Celebration of the Individual
Love of Classical Learning (Humanism)
Enjoyment of Worldly pleasures
Describe the "Renaissance Man"
a man should be very well-rounded
Describe the "Renaissance Woman"
Inspire great things
limited role
Machiavelli's "The Prince"
examine the imperfect behavior of humans
self help for city states
used as a guide
Characteristics of Renaissance Art
Use of perspective
realistic
colorful
religious themes
Renaissance Painters
Raphael
Leonardo da Vinci
Michelangelo
How did the Renaissance spread to Northern Europe?
flocking artists
artists moved
kings had artists paint for them
artists taught techniques in different countries
Henry VIII's six wives
Catherine of Aragon-divorced
Anne Boleyn-beheaded
Jane Seymour-died
Anne of Cleves-divorced
Kathryn Howard-beheaded
Katherine Parr-survived
What is an absolute monarch?
An absolute monarch is a government situation in which a queen or king rules everything.
WHy did absolute monarchs emerge?
popular trend and feudalism was ending
monarchs did not get along with Parliament
French Invasion of the Netherlands
France wants the Rhine River.

Dutch were victorious, flooded the French out with dykes.
Ivan the Terrible's "good period"
won great victories
made laws
ruled justly
gained land
Ivan the Terrible's "bad period"
wife Anastacia died
blamed boyars for wife's death
killed A LOT of boyars
secret police/wore black on black
killed oldest son and heir
Peter the Great's accomplishments
reduced the power of landowners
modernized the army
wetsernized Russia
won a warm-water port on the Baltic sea
Causes of the Scientific Revolution
exploration of Africa, Asia, and the Americas
invention of the printing press
The First Estate-Clergy
less than 1% of population
owned 10% of France's land
provided education and relief to the poor
donated 2% of income to the government
The Second Estate-Nobles
2% of the population
owned 20% of France's land
paid almost no taxes
scorned ideas of Enlightenment
The Third Estate
Bourgeoisie
Cityworkers
Peasants
made up 97% of population
Bourgeoisie
middle class
bankers, factory owners, merchants
well educated
believed in Enlightenment ideals
some were as rich as nobles
paid high taxes
Cityworkers
poorest
low wages, frequently unemployed
often went hungry
stole for what they could get
Peasants
more than 80% of total population
paid taxes on salt
Paid 1/2 of their income to nobles, tithes to the Church, and taxes to the king's agents
eager for change
Causes of the French Revolution
The Old Regime
Weak Leadership
Enlightenment Thought
Economic Troubles
Napoleon's Actions - Domestic policy
Tax collection and National Banking system
Dismissed corrupt officials
Set up govt. run public schools
Separated Church and State
Napoleonic Code