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92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
those who favor minimal government role in any sphere
want strong substantive gov't role in economy and in social order to realize their vision of a community of equals
a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote on a proposed statute, constitutional amendment, charter amendment or ordinance. It is a form of direct democracy.
a proposed piece of legislation that is brought by the legislature and voted by the public
recall election
procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office.
primary election
election in which voters in a jurisdiction select candidates for a subsequent election (nominating primary).
General Election
an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. The term is usually used to refer to elections held for a nation's primary legislative body,
Sugar Act
Act passed by the Parliament of Great Britain, a revision to the earlier Sugar and Molasses Act, which had imposed a tax of sixpence per gallon on molasses in order to make English products cheaper than those from the French West Indies. C
stamp act
The duty ranged between 1 penny to shillings on a number of different legal documents including insurance policies, documents used as evidence in courts, grants of honour, grants of probate and letters of administration
townsend act
These laws placed a tax on common products imported into the American Colonies, such as lead, paper, paint, glass, and tea
Boston Tea Party
was a protest by the American colonists against Great Britain in which they destroyed many crates of tea bricks on ships in Boston Harbor. The incident, which took place on Thursday, December 16, 1773, has been seen as helping to spark the American Revolution
Articles of Confederation
was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America.
Shay's Rebellion
was an armed uprising in western Massachusetts from 1786 to 1787. The rebels, led by Daniel Shays and known as Shaysites (or "Regulators"), were mostly small farmers angered by crushing debt and taxes
virginia plan
proposed instead a legislative branch consisting of two chambers (bicameral legislature), in each of which the states would be represented in proportion to their “Quotas of contribution, or to the number of free inhabitants.”
new jersey plan
hat would have given one vote per state for equal representation under one legislative body.
connecticut compromise
one house representative of population (house) and one with equal representation (senate) what plan is this?
electoral college
is made up of a set of electors who are empowered as a deliberative body to elect a candidate to a particular office. It is an example of indirect election. Often these electors represent a different organization or entity with each organization or entity represented by a particular number of electors or with votes weighted in a particular way. Many times, though, the electors are simply important persons whose wisdom, it is hoped, would provide a better choice than a larger body
separation of powers
Under this model the state is divided into branches, and each branch of the state has separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility. But this is only half the story, as each branch is also able to place specified restraints on the powers exerted by the other branches.
checks and balances
the same as separation of powers ???
# Statesmen and public figures supporting ratification of the proposed Constitution of the United States between 1787 and 1789. The Federalist Papers are documents associated with their movement.
anti federalists
n opposition to the ratification of the 1787 Constitution of the United State
bill of rights
a list or summary of rights that are considered important and essential by a group of people. The purpose of these bills is to protect those rights against infringement by other people and the government.
The Elastic Clause (also known as the neceassary and proper clause)
the clause that says that congress can make any law necessary for them to carry out their powers. it's in the constitution
commerce clause
clause that allows the congress to regulate commerce between states and with foreign nations.
spending clause
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States
supremacy clause
establishes the Constitution, Federal Statutes, and U.S. treaties as "the supreme law of the land." The Constitution is the highest form of law in the American legal system. State judges are required to uphold it, even if state laws or constitutions conflict with the clause.
three-fifths compromise
the formula for counting five slaves as three people for purposes of representation that reconciled the north and the south at the Constitutional convention
Federalist Papers
a series of essays written in support of the constitution to lead to its ratification
federal systems (federalism)
a system of government where power is divided between central and regional units
unitary systems
a government in which all power is centralized
confederal systems
a government in which local units hold all the power
cooperative federalism
the federal system under which the national and state governments share responsibility for most domestic policy areas (swirled together)
dual federalism
the federal system under which the national and state governments are responsible for separate policy areas (layer cake, each keeps separate)
regulatory federalism
federalism that regulates business/environmental standards/ ??? they restrict or change the behavior of groups or individuals
transfer of powers from national gov't to the states
McCulloch VS Maryland
In this case, the state of Maryland attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland. Though the law, by its language, was generally applicable, the U.S. Bank was the only out-of-state bank then existing in Maryland, and the law is generally recognized as specifically targeting the U.S. Bank. The Court invoked the Elastic Clause in the Constitution, which allowed the Federal government to pass laws not expressly provided for in the Constitution's list of express powers as long as those laws are in useful furtherance of the express powers.

This fundamental case established the following two principles:

1. that the Constitution grants to Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitution's express powers, in order to create a functional national government, and
2. that state action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government.

The opinion was written by Chief Justice John Marshall, a man whose many judicial opinions have shaped modern constitutional law. (significance is that the supreme court confirmed the supremacy of national over state government)
declaration by a state that a federal law is null within its borders
block grants,
federal funds provided for a broad purpose, not restricted by requirements and regulations
categorical grants
federal funds provided for a specific purpose, restricted by instructions, regulations, and standards
general revenue sharing
Congress gave an annual share of the federal tax revenue to the States and their cities, counties, isthmuses and townships. ******was extremely popular with state officials, but it lost federal support during the Reagan Administration. *****was ended in 1987 to help narrow the National Government's deficit. In 1987, ***** was primarily replaced with block grants.
Dillon's Rule
local governments are not extremely important, they only have powers given them under state/national constitution
concurrent powers
powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments, such as * To collect taxes
* To borrow money
* To establish and maintain courts
* To make and enforce laws
* To provide for the health and welfare of the people
enumerated powers
congressional powers specifically named in the constitution, like the necessary and proper clause and the commerce clause. this says that these are the only powers that congress has. this has led to a lot of controversy, because some states want the congress to stay limited, but the congress uses the elastic (necessary and proper) to get other things done
unfunded mandates
a federal order under which states operate and pay for a program created at the national level
implied powers
these are powers that fall under the necesssary and proper clause. powers that are not stated explicitly in the U.S. constitution but can be inferred, based on the interpretation of the powers that are expressed.
inherent powers
presidential powers implied but not explicitly stated in the constitution.
putting a policy into practice
public opinion
the collective attitudes and beliefs of individuals on one or more issues
public opinion poll
scientific efforts to testimate what an entire group thinks about an issue by asking a smaller sample
benchmark poll
initial polls on a candidate and issues on which campaign strategy is based and agsinst which latr polls are compared. they find out who knows the candidate, how they see them, and which issues they connect with the candidate
tracking poll
an ongoing series of polls that sees how public opinion changes over time
exit poll
election-related questions asked of voters right after they vote. they help predict who will win elections. they used to be reliable, but have been less correct in predictive power in the last few elections
push poll
not really a poll- its a deceptive device to change opinions. they ask for reactions to hypothetical, often false, information in order to manipulate public opinion
focus group
not a scientfic way to gauge the public's opinion, but a small group used to test polls or find out information about a certain population
small portion of the population that is polled to determine the attitudes of the whole population
random sample
a sample chosen in such a way that any member of the population being polled has an equal c hance of being selected for the sample
representative sample
has the same proportions of groups that is found in the larger population
multi-stage cluster sampling
start by dividing up by region, then state, then city, then street, etc- and when you get to the house, you ask for a specific member- oldest male, etc. This is representative, because it is proportional
sampling error
could be bias in a poll, not representative sample
measurement error
when a poll is unreliable because of the question wording or responses
margin of error
the plus or minus 3 % that says that 95% of the time, the population polled will give this response within 3%
political socialization
the process by which we obtain political attitudes. we are influenced by parents, peers, schools, teachers, workplace, media, etc.
the feeling of assurement that your actions are actually getting something done
party identification
affiliation with a party
gender gap
the tendency for men and women to differ in their political views on some issues, such as violence. women used to be more conservative, but now that they are better educated and are working more, they are usually more liberal than men
marriage gap
married people have different opinions than single people. they are more likely to be conservative
online processing
the ability to receive and evaluate information as events happen, allowing us to remember our evaluation even if we have forgotten specific events that caused it
opinion leaders
people who know more about certain topics than we do and whose advice we trust, seek out, and follow. this means that we may take their position on an issue because we usually agree with them and we think they know what they're talking about
a system or organization exercising authority over a group of people
who gets what, when, and how- a process of determining how power and resources are distributed in a society without violence
the ability to get other people to do what you want
power that is recognized as legitimate
authoritarian governments
a system in which the state holds all of the power
totalitarian governments
a system in which absolute power is exercised over every aspect of life
an authoritarian government with power vested in a king or queen
a form of government in which total power is held by one person
an authoritarian government that claims to draw its power from divine or religious authority
absence of government and laws
rule by a set group of elites
power in the people
elite democracy
a theory of democracy tha tlimits the citizens' role to choosint among competing leaders. after elections you have no power, and some believe that the major corporations and militaries are in charge
pluralist democracy
a theory of democracy that holds that citizen membership in groups is the key to political power
participatory democracy
a theory of democracy that holds that citizens should actively adn directly control all aspects of their lives
popular sovereignty
the concept that the citizens are the ultimate source of political power
a government in shich decisions are made through representative of the people
political culture
the shared values and beliefs about teh nature of teh political world that give people a common language in which to discuss and debate political ideas
social contract
the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for teh protection of other rights
no unfair rules, rights
all people should be treated the same
belief systems about politics, the economy, and society that help people make sense of their world
a person who wants government action and views change as progress
a person who generally favors limited government and is cautious about change