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### 100 Cards in this Set

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 control variables variables in an experiment that are kept the same throughout the experiment controlled experiment when one variable is changed and all the others are controlled or stay the same throughout the experiment distance the length of space between two points english system a system of measuring that uses, for example, distance units of inches, yards, and miles experiment any situation that is set up to observe and measure something happening experimental technique the exact procedure that is followed each time an experiment is repeated experimental variable a variable in an experiment that is changed by the experimenter; the experimental variable is plotted as an independent variable on the x-axis of a graph hypothesis a prediction that can be tested by experimentation investigation one or more experiences that are all connected to answering the same basic question length a unit of measurement for distance measurement the act or process of measuring in multiples of a specific unit metric system a system of measuring that uses, for example, distance units of millimeters, centimeters, meters, and kilometers procedure a collection of all the techniques you use to do an experiment scientific method a process that is used to gather evidence that leads to understanding second a commonly used unit of time, 1/60 of a minute time a useful measurement of changes in motion or events; all or part of all the past, present, and future trial each time an experiment is tried variables factors that affect the results of an experiment velocity describes movement from one place to another over time and in a certain direction accelerate to increase speed or change direction acceleration the change of speed over time average speed how fast something moves over a certain distance conceptual model a written description or diagram based on ideas and observations that are used to describe how a process or object works deceleration occurs when change in speed, or acceleration, is in the negative direction dependent variable the variable in an experiment that changes in response to choices made by the experimenter; this variable is plotted on the y-axis of a graph free fall the acceleration of a falling object under the influence of Earth's gravitational force graphical model a model that shows the relationship betweeen 2 variables on a graph so that the relationship is easily seen and understood gravity the attractive force that exists between any 2 objects that have mass independent variable the variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter and that causes changes in the dependent variable in the experiment; this variable is plotted on the x-axis of a graph instantaneous speed the speed of an object at a specific point in its journey physical model a model that is made of materials and can be touched and measured scientific model a method of representing the relationship between variables air friction the opposing force created by ovjects moving through air equilibrium occurs when the forces on an object are balanced force a push, a pull, or any action that had the ability to change motion friction the force that results from relative motion between objects gravity the attractive force that exists between and 2 objects that have mass inertia the reluctance of a body to change its state of motion Law of conservation of momentum states that as long as interacting objects are not influenced by outside forces, their momentum before the interaction will equal their momentum after the interaction mass a measure of the inertia of an object; the amount of matter an object has momentum the mass of an object multiplied by its speed or velocity net force the amount of force that overcomes an opposing force to cause motion newton a unit of force; the abbreviation is N Newton's 1st Law an object in motion will stay in motion, and an object in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by an opposite force Newton's 2nd Law the accleration of an object is directly proportional to the force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass Newton's 3rd Law for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction pounds english system unit of force rolling friction resistance created when one object rolls over another one sliding friction resistance created when 2 surfaces rub against each other vicious friction resistance created by objects moving in water of other fluids chemical energy a type of energy stored in molecules energy a fundamental building block of the universe; it appears in defferent forms energy trasnformations the conversion from one kind of energy to another kind of energy joule a unit for measuring work; equal to one newton of force times one meter of distance; the abbreviation is J Kinetic energy energy that comes from motion law of conservation of energy energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed potential energy stored energy that comes from position amplitude the maximum distance from the average harmonic motion;usually a distance or an angle cycle a unit of motion that repeats over and over frequency the # of wavelengths that pass a given point in one second harmonic motion motion that repeats itself hertz a unit of one cycle per second used to measure frequency; the abbreviation is Hz oscillator a system that shows harmonic motion period the time for one cycle periodic motion cycles of motion that repeat over and over again; the same as harmonic motion phase refers to where an oscillator is in its cycle system a collection of matter and processes that occur in a certain space and can be studied; they can't be opened or closed circular waves waves that move in concentric cirlces diffraction the process by which waves can bend around corners or pass through openings crest the high point on a wave longitudnal wave a wave whose oscillations are in the same direction as the wave moves plane waves waves that move in straight lines reflection the bounce of a wave off a surface refraction occurs when light passes from one transparent material into another and bends standing waves waves that are trapped in one spot transverse wave a wave whose oscillation is perpendicular to the direction the wave travels trough the low point on a wave wave fronts another term used to describe the crests of a wave cochlea a tiny, fluid-filled bone structure in the inner ear with three tubes and a spiral pressure the force acting on a unit area of a surface` decibel measures the loudness of sound acoustics the science and technology of sound pitch property of a sound determined by the frequency of the waves producing it sonogram special kind of graph that shows how loud sound is at different frequencies white noise an equal mixture of all frequencies supersonic a speed faster than the speed of sound (340 m/s) reverberation multiple echoes of sound cone cells photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that respond to color cyan a greenish, light-blue that is created when red is absorbed and green and blue are reflected electromagnetic spectrum the whole range of light rod cells photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that respond to differences in brightess yellow a color that is created when blue is absorbed and red and green are reflected flourescent a type of electronic light bulb incandescence the process of making light with heat magenta a pink-purple color that is created when green is absorbed and red and blue are reflected subtractive primary colors magenta, cyan, and yellow photoluminescence occurs when light energy makes something else give off light nanometer a unit of measurement that is equal to one billionth of a meter polarizer a partially transparant material that lets through only one polarization of light visible light the light you can see in the range between 400 and 700 nanometers