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100 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
control variables
variables in an experiment that are kept the same throughout the experiment
controlled experiment
when one variable is changed and all the others are controlled or stay the same throughout the experiment
distance
the length of space between two points
english system
a system of measuring that uses, for example, distance units of inches, yards, and miles
experiment
any situation that is set up to observe and measure something happening
experimental technique
the exact procedure that is followed each time an experiment is repeated
experimental variable
a variable in an experiment that is changed by the experimenter; the experimental variable is plotted as an independent variable on the x-axis of a graph
hypothesis
a prediction that can be tested by experimentation
investigation
one or more experiences that are all connected to answering the same basic question
length
a unit of measurement for distance
measurement
the act or process of measuring in multiples of a specific unit
metric system
a system of measuring that uses, for example, distance units of millimeters, centimeters, meters, and kilometers
procedure
a collection of all the techniques you use to do an experiment
scientific method
a process that is used to gather evidence that leads to understanding
second
a commonly used unit of time, 1/60 of a minute
time
a useful measurement of changes in motion or events; all or part of all the past, present, and future
trial
each time an experiment is tried
variables
factors that affect the results of an experiment
velocity
describes movement from one place to another over time and in a certain direction
accelerate
to increase speed or change direction
acceleration
the change of speed over time
average speed
how fast something moves over a certain distance
conceptual model
a written description or diagram based on ideas and observations that are used to describe how a process or object works
deceleration
occurs when change in speed, or acceleration, is in the negative direction
dependent variable
the variable in an experiment that changes in response to choices made by the experimenter; this variable is plotted on the y-axis of a graph
free fall
the acceleration of a falling object under the influence of Earth's gravitational force
graphical model
a model that shows the relationship betweeen 2 variables on a graph so that the relationship is easily seen and understood
gravity
the attractive force that exists between any 2 objects that have mass
independent variable
the variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter and that causes changes in the dependent variable in the experiment; this variable is plotted on the x-axis of a graph
instantaneous speed
the speed of an object at a specific point in its journey
physical model
a model that is made of materials and can be touched and measured
scientific model
a method of representing the relationship between variables
air friction
the opposing force created by ovjects moving through air
equilibrium
occurs when the forces on an object are balanced
force
a push, a pull, or any action that had the ability to change motion
friction
the force that results from relative motion between objects
gravity
the attractive force that exists between and 2 objects that have mass
inertia
the reluctance of a body to change its state of motion
Law of conservation of momentum
states that as long as interacting objects are not influenced by outside forces, their momentum before the interaction will equal their momentum after the interaction
mass
a measure of the inertia of an object; the amount of matter an object has
momentum
the mass of an object multiplied by its speed or velocity
net force
the amount of force that overcomes an opposing force to cause motion
newton
a unit of force; the abbreviation is N
Newton's 1st Law
an object in motion will stay in motion, and an object in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by an opposite force
Newton's 2nd Law
the accleration of an object is directly proportional to the force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass
Newton's 3rd Law
for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
pounds
english system unit of force
rolling friction
resistance created when one object rolls over another one
sliding friction
resistance created when 2 surfaces rub against each other
vicious friction
resistance created by objects moving in water of other fluids
chemical energy
a type of energy stored in molecules
energy
a fundamental building block of the universe; it appears in defferent forms
energy trasnformations
the conversion from one kind of energy to another kind of energy
joule
a unit for measuring work; equal to one newton of force times one meter of distance; the abbreviation is J
Kinetic energy
energy that comes from motion
law of conservation of energy
energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed
potential energy
stored energy that comes from position
amplitude
the maximum distance from the average harmonic motion;usually a distance or an angle
cycle
a unit of motion that repeats over and over
frequency
the # of wavelengths that pass a given point in one second
harmonic motion
motion that repeats itself
hertz
a unit of one cycle per second used to measure frequency; the abbreviation is Hz
oscillator
a system that shows harmonic motion
period
the time for one cycle
periodic motion
cycles of motion that repeat over and over again; the same as harmonic motion
phase
refers to where an oscillator is in its cycle
system
a collection of matter and processes that occur in a certain space and can be studied; they can't be opened or closed
circular waves
waves that move in concentric cirlces
diffraction
the process by which waves can bend around corners or pass through openings
crest
the high point on a wave
longitudnal wave
a wave whose oscillations are in the same direction as the wave moves
plane waves
waves that move in straight lines
reflection
the bounce of a wave off a surface
refraction
occurs when light passes from one transparent material into another and bends
standing waves
waves that are trapped in one spot
transverse wave
a wave whose oscillation is perpendicular to the direction the wave travels
trough
the low point on a wave
wave fronts
another term used to describe the crests of a wave
cochlea
a tiny, fluid-filled bone structure in the inner ear with three tubes and a spiral
pressure
the force acting on a unit area of a surface`
decibel
measures the loudness of sound
acoustics
the science and technology of sound
pitch
property of a sound determined by the frequency of the waves producing it
sonogram
special kind of graph that shows how loud sound is at different frequencies
white noise
an equal mixture of all frequencies
supersonic
a speed faster than the speed of sound (340 m/s)
reverberation
multiple echoes of sound
cone cells
photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that respond to color
cyan
a greenish, light-blue that is created when red is absorbed and green and blue are reflected
electromagnetic spectrum
the whole range of light
rod cells
photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that respond to differences in brightess
yellow
a color that is created when blue is absorbed and red and green are reflected
flourescent
a type of electronic light bulb
incandescence
the process of making light with heat
magenta
a pink-purple color that is created when green is absorbed and red and blue are reflected
subtractive primary colors
magenta, cyan, and yellow
photoluminescence
occurs when light energy makes something else give off light
nanometer
a unit of measurement that is equal to one billionth of a meter
polarizer
a partially transparant material that lets through only one polarization of light
visible light
the light you can see in the range between 400 and 700 nanometers