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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Law of Multiple Proportions
Whenever two elements from more than one compound. the different masses of one element that combine with the same mass of the other element are in the ration of small whole numbers.
Avogadro's Number
The number of representative particles contained in one mole of a substance to 6.022 x10^23 atoms.
Molar Mass
A general expression used to refer to mass of a mole of any substance unless a more scientific term is needed to avoid confusion.
Mole
The amount of a substance that contains 6.022x10^23 representative particles of that substance.
Endothermic
Occurring or formed with the absorption of heat.
Exothermic
Occurring or formed with the liberation of heat.
Atomic Mass Unit
Unit of mass for expressing masses of atoms or molecules
Atomic Structure
The way in which atoms are arranged in a molecule
Average Atomic Mass
An atomic weight of an element from a specified source is the ratio of the average mass per atom of elements to 1/12 of the mass of C.
Electrons
Subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge.
Lanthanide Series
First row of rare-earth elements in the periodic table.
Actinide Series
Second row of rare earth elements in the periodic table.
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
The idea that the exact position and momentum of a particle cannot be precisely determined at the same time.
Bohr Model of Atom
Depicts atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around nucleus.
Biochemistry
The study of the composition and behavior of substances in living organisms.
Mass
The amount of matter that an object contains; the SI base unit is the kilogram
Matter
Anything that takes up space.
Atom
The smallest componenent of an element having the chemical properties of the element.
Phase
Any part of a system with uniform composition and properties.
Weight
Force that measures the pull of gravity on a given mass.
Aufbau Principle
Electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first.
Hund's Rule
When electrons occupy orbitals of equal energy, one electron enters each orbital until all orbitals contain one electron with their spins parallel.
Alkali Metals
Any metals in group 1A of the periodic table. Have one electron in the outermost energy level. Tend to form ionic bonds with halogens. Extremely reactive, silver, and softy metals. Not found as elements in nature.
Alkaline Earth Metals
Group 2A: Have 2 electrons in the outermost energy level. Harder, denser, and stronger than the alkali metals. Extremely reactive. Are not found as elements in nature.
Nucleus
Dense central portion of atom, composed of protons and neutrons
Halogen
Group 7A: Most reactive of all the non-metals. React vigorously to form salts. Have 7 electrons in the outermost energy level. Non-conductors of electricity.
Atomic Mass
The weighted average of the masses of the isotopes of an element.
Atomic Number
Number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Mass Number
Total number of protons and neutrons in nucleus of an atom.
Isotopes
Atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number but different atomic masses due to a different number of neutrons.
Transition Metals
Gradual filling of the d-orbital, which includes groups 3-12. Good conductors of electricity and have a high luster. Less reactive than groups 1A and 2A
Law of Definite Proportions
In any sample of a chemical compound, the different elements are always combined in the same proportion by mass.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
No two electrons or protons or neutrons in a given system can be in states characterized by the same set of quantum numbers.
Precipitate
Formation of a solid in a solution during a chemical reaction.
Solution
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
Neutrons
Subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.
Analytical Chemistry
Science of chemical characterization and measurement
Proton
Subatomic particle with positive charge equal to negative charge of electron.
Fluoride
F
-1
Potassium
K
+1
Chlorate
ClO(3)
-1

( ) = subscript
Calcium
Ca
+2
Carbonate
CO(3)
-2

( ) = subscript
Hydroxide
OH
-1
Lithium
Li
+1
Oxide
O
-2
Barium
Ba
+2
Aluminum
Al
+3
Thiosulfate
S(2)O(3)
-2

( ) = subscript
Sulfate
SO(4)
-2

( ) = subscript
Spatula
To transfer solid chemicals in weighing.
Pneumatic Trough
To hold water, gas collecting bottles, and delivery tube from gas generator.
Double Buret Clamp
To hold burets when titrating
Tongs
To pick up and hold apparatus
Test Tube
Many Uses

Can be heated
Erlenmeyer Flask
May be heated.
Florence Flask
Used for heating substances in Organic Chemistry
Buret Clamp / Test Tube Clamp
To hold apparatus

May be fastened to the ring stand
Triangular File
To scratch glass

To file
Mortar and Pestle
To grind chemicals to a powder
Ring Stand
A support with many uses.
Stirring Rod
To stir combinations of materials

To use in pouring liquids
Gas Measuring Tube
Used to collect and measure the volumes of gases
10cm Ruler
To measure length
Test Tube Holder
To hold a test tube
Graduated Cylinder
To measure volume
Microtitration Plate
Used t hold liquids in micro experiments
Crucible and Cover
To heat small amounts of solid material at high temperature
Plastic Wash Bottle
To dispense distilled water
Pinch Clamp
To clamp a rubber connector
Test Tube Brush
To scrub glass apparatus
Evaporating Dish
Used as a container for small amounts of liquid being evaporated.
Wire Gauze
To spread the heat of a flame
Watch Glass
May be used as a beaker cover

May be used in evaporating very small amounts of liquid
Beaker
As a container, like a cup

May be heated
Laboratory (Bunsen) Burner
To heat chemicals in beakers or test tubes
Iron Ring
To fasten to the ring stand as a support for apparatus
Test Tube Rack
To hold test tubes in an upright position
Rubber Connector
To connect parts of apparatus
Volumetric Flask
Used in the preparation of solutions
Buret
Used to withdraw and measure volumes of solutions in titrations
Funnel
To hold a filter paper

May be used in pouring
Medicine Dropper
To transfer small amounts of liquid
Forceps
To pick up or hold small objects
Funnel Support
To support funnels
Thin Stem Pipette
Used in micro experiment to transfer small amounts of liquid