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39 Cards in this Set

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Asexual Reproduction
1 Parent
Identical to parent
Involves MITOSIS
No gametes
Sexual Reproduction
2 parents
Genetic variations
Meiosis
2 gametes [Male & Female]
Types of Asexual Reproduction
Binary Fission
Budding
Sporulation
Regeneration
Vegetative Propagation
Binary Fission (& Examples)
Even splitting of cytoplasm

-Protozoa
-Algea
-Bacteria
Budding (& Examples)
Uneven splittling of cytoplasm

-Hydra
-Yeast
Sporulation (& Examples)
Production of ASEXUAL spores

-Mushrooms
-Breadmold
-Moss
-Ferns
Regeneration (& Examples)
Parts are cut and form ENTIRE organism

-Starfish
-Planeria (flatworm)
Vegetative Propagation (& Examples)
Plant regeneration
1)Natural
-BULB: tulip, onion, garlic
-TUBER: potato
-RUNNER: strawberry, grass
2)Artificial
-CUTTINGS
-GRAFTING
Natural & Artificial
Fertilization
Fusion of egg (N) + sperm (N)= ZYGOTE (2N)

gametes are monoploids
fertilization restores diploid number
Monoploid numbers
Hermaphrodites
Both FUNCTIONAL gonads
-Earthworm
-Hydra
-Snails
Modified Sexual Reproduction
Parthenogenisis: Egg develops into an embryo without sperm

-Drone (male bee): vibrations cause female egg to cleave
Parthenogenisis
External Fertilization
Egg & Sperm unite OUTSIDE of female
Conditions for External Fertilization
& Externally fertilizing organisms
Lots of embryos
Little prenatal care
USUALLY in H20
-Fish, Amphibians
When on land: SHELLED AMNIOTIC EGG
Parts of the amniotic egg
ALLANTIOS: Respiration, exretion (diffuse in & out of egg)
CHORION: Surrounds membranes
AMNION: Fluid H2O protection
YOLK: Stored food
SHELL: Porous, protective
allantios
chorion
amnion
yolk
shell
Internal Fertilization
Egg & Sperm unite INSIDE of female
Conditions for Internal Fertilization & Internally Fertilizing Organisms
Mammals, birds, reptiles
Fewer eggs
More prenatal care
Steps of internal fertilization
>Egg meets sperm
>Diploid # restored
>"Cleavage" (mitosis) occurs
>MORULA
>BLASTULA
>GASTRULA
Morula
Solid ball of 100s of cells
Blastula
Hollow ball of cells
Gastrula
"Germ Layer"
3 cell layers form
Differentiation of Gastrula
Cells become specialized

ECTODERM (outer):
-epidermis
-nervous system
ENDODERM (inner):
-digestive
-respiratory
-pancreas
-liver
MESODERM (middle):
-muscles
-circulatory
-skelaton
-excratory
-gonads
-immulayer of skin
Endoderm
Mesoderm
Ectoderm
Types of Internal Development & Examples
PLACENTAL
-Mammals
NON-PLACENTAL
-Organisms
-Marsupials (pouched)
-Fish
-Some sharks
--- All use 'yolk sac'
Placental
Non-Placental
Placental Development
PLACENTA:
-develops in uterus
-highly musculated structure
-houses the embryo
-forms from mother & embryo
-ALL materials exchanged at CHORIONIC VILLI
[foods, gases, wastes]

AMNIOTIC SAC:
-fluid protection

UMBIBLICAL CORD:
-functional connection for placenta to embryo
Placenta
Amniotic Sac
Umbiblical Cord
Male Reproductive System
TESTES:
-2 paired
-Begin in abdomen --> descend into outpocketing of body wall [SCROTUM]
-Must be 2-4 degrees cooler for optimum SPERM COUNT (250-500 million sperm)

VAS DEFERENS
-Tube: Testes --> Urethra
-VASECTOMY: Tube tied

GLANDS (SEMINAL FLUID)
-Prostate
-Couper
-Seminal Vesicles

PENIS
deposits sperm into vagina
Testes
Vas Deferens
Glands
Penis
What do the seminal glands produce?
fructose & alkaline
--> transport moisture & food for sperm (no cytoplasm)
Female Reproductive System
OVARIES:
-2 paired
-Stay in abdomen

FALLOPIAN TUBES:
-Also called "oviduct"
-trasport egg from ovary to uterus

FOLLICLE:
-Cavity in ovary

UTERUS:
-Highly musculated
-Can expand x 10

CERVIX:
-Opening to uterus
-TUBAL LITIGATION prevents
ovulation

VAGINA:
-Egg dischared
-Birth Canal
-Receptacle for penis

VULVA:
-Outside Folds
Ovaries
Fallopian tubes
Follicle
Uterus
Cervix
Vagina
Vulva
Stages of the Menstrual Cycle
Follicle Stage

Ovulation

Corpus Luteum

Menstruation
Follicle Stage
DAY 5
-FSH stimulates ovary
--Ovaries produce estrogen
-Egg matures/ ripes
Ovulation
DAY 14
-Egg is released
Corpus Luteum
DAY 15
-Follicle heals (Lutenizing Hormone)
-Progesterone causes lining of the uterus to thicken
Menstruation
-If egg is NOT fertilized, lining of the uterus and small amounts of blood is discharged
Where do egg and sperm unite?
Where does cleavage occur?
Where does implantation occur?
-UPPER PART OF FALLOPIAN TUBES
-LOWER PART OF FALLOPIAN TUBES
-LINING OF THE UTERUS
Implantation
Gastrula attatches to lining of the uterus.
Invitro: Artificial implantation

Identical twins: 1 sperm 1 egg
Fraternal twins: 2 sperm 2 egg
Non-reproductive parts of flower
Petal
-color & odor
-attracts insects & birds

Sepal
-Small leaves that hold petals
Male reproductive parts of plant
STAMEN
-Anther: meiosis, produces pollen (sperm)
-Filament: wirelike, holds anther
Femalre reproductive parts of plant
PISTIL
-Stigma: at the top, sticky, recieves pollen grains
-Style: Tube
-Ovary: Contains ovule
Steps in plant reproduction
1. MEIOSIS:
-Pollen (N) sperm forms in anther
-Egg (N) forms in ovule

2. POLLINATION
-pollen grains land in stigma
(SELF/CROSS pollination)

3. FERTILIZATION
-A) Pollen (N) + Egg (N)= Zygote (2N)

-B) Pollen (N)+ 2 Polar Bodies (N)(N)= ENDOSPERM (3N) Triploid --> Food for plant

4. SEED FORMS (in ovule)

5. FRUIT (ovary)
-protects the deed
Meiosis
Pollination
Fertilization
Seed formation
Fruit
Needs for Germination
-O2
-H2O
-Specific Temperature
-Light is NOT needed (endosperm used for food)
Parts of a seed
SEED COAT

EMBRYO

EPYCOTYL
-leaves
-upper stem

HYPOCOTYL
-roots
-leaves
-stem

COTYLEDON
-stored food
Seed Coat
Embryo
Epycotyl
Hypocotyl
Cotyledon