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32 Cards in this Set

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Organism
An independent individual that possesses all characteristics of life.
Autotroph
An organism that produces its own nutrients from inorganic substances or from the environment instead of consuming other organisms.
Heterotroph
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or by eating their byproducts and that cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic materials
Sexual Reproduction
Hereditary information recombines from 2 organisms of the same species the resulting off spring are similar but not identical to parents
Asexual Reproduction
Hereditary information from different organisms are not combined so original organism and new organism are the same (No parents, 1 organism only).
Differentiation
The process by which a less specialized cell devolops or matures to become more distinct in form and function
Stem Cell
Embryonic cell that has the potential to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types
Metabolism
Set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes.
Stimulus
A signal to which an organism responds
Homeostasis
process by which organism maintain a reletivly stable internal environment
Evolution
the process by which organism as a group change over time; process where modern organisms have decended from ancienct organisms
Hydrogen Bond
the Intermolecular force occuring when a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom of one molecule is attached to two unshared electrons of another molecule
Hydrolysis
Chemical reaction in which a molecule is broken apart by the addition of H and OH from a water molecule
Dehydration Synthesis
Chemical reaction in which smaller molecules are joined together by removing an H and an OH to make a water molecule
Catalyst
A substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed of changed significantly.
Enzyme
type of protein or RNA molecule that speds up metabolic recations in the pants and animals without perm. changied or destroyed
Substrate
a part. substance, one element that lies beneath and supports another part , substance, or element
Active Site
the site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
Polar Molecule
has uneven charge with more negative charge on one side and more positive on the other
Hydrophilic
describes a polar molecule that mixes easily with water; means "water loving"
Hydrophobic
describes a non-polar molecule tthat tries to stay away from water; means "water fearing"
Monomer
a molecule that may react to another molecule of the same type to form a larger molecule. Combine with other through chemical bonds to form a larger molecule as in polymer
Polymer
made by monomers link by chemical bonds. also produce by polynerication natural or synthetically sugar*
Carbohydrate
and group of the organic compounds that have carbon hydrogen and oxygen, suger startch and gums. something biomolecules
Polysaccharide
like glucosen, startch, and cellulose are made by joing many sugar molecules together.
Lipid
A fatty or waxy organic compound that is readily soluble in nonpolar solvent (e.g. ether) but not in polar solvent (e.g water). Its major biological functions involve energy storage, structural component of cell membrane, and cell signaling.
Nucleic Acid
Any of the group of complex compounds consisting of linear chains of monomeric nucleotides whereby each monomeric unit is composed of phosphoric acid, sugar and nitrogenous base, and involved in the preservation, replication, and expression of hereditary information in every living cell

The chains of nucleotides in a nucleic acid are linked by 3', 5' phosphodiester linkages.
Nucleotide
The basic building block of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. It is an organic compound made up of nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
single stranded nucleic acid that makes up ribosomes carries info from dna out to cel
Deoxyribonucleuc Acid (DNA
double stranded nucleic acid that stores gentic information in cells
Protein
amindo acids joing together to make this
Amino Acid
subunit used to make a protein.