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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is matter?
anything that has mass or takes up space
The building block of matter is what?
the atom
What are the particles in atoms called?
subatomic
What are the three principal nucleons in atoms?
1.proton - p+
2.neutron - n0
3.electron - e-
Draw a model of an atom.
On seperate sheet.
Describe the structure of an atom.
The structure of an atom are the subatomic particles; protons, electrons, and neutrons.
Why do all isotopes have the same chemical process? In what way do isotopes of an element differ?
Isotopes have the same chemical properties because they have the same number of electrons. One way isotopes differ is that some isotopes are radioactive meaning that their nucleii are unstable and breakdown at a constant rate over time. Isotopes also have atoms in which numbers of neutrons differ.
What is a covalent bond? and Ionic bond?
A covalent bond is formed when electrons are shared between atoms. When the atoms share two electrons, the bond is called a single covalent bond. An ionic bond is formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The attraction between oppositely charged ions is an ionic bond.
What is a compound? How are compounds related to molecules?
A compound is a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions. Since a molecule is the smallest unit of most compounds, a molecule and compound are related since molecules are found in compounds.
How do van der Waals forces hold molecules together?
Van der Waals forces hold molecules together by an attraction, when molecules are close together, that can develop between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules.
How are Ionic bonds and van der Waals forces similar? How are they different?
Ionic bonds and van der Waals forces are similar int he way that something is caused by an attraction and both are oppositely charged. In a way they differ is something occurs when molecules are close together and van der Waals forces but in an ionic bond, electrons are transferred.
How much mass does a proton have?
1
How much mass does a neutron have?
1
How much mass does an electron have?
0
What is the mass of an atom?
protons and neutrons added together
What is an element?
the unique form of substance standard for it's subatomic count.... every element has it's own atomic number
What is an atomic number?
to the number of p+/or e- in the nucleus
Give an example.
12
C
6

the 12 is the atomic mass and the 6 is the number of protons or neutrons or the atomic number and the problem equals 6 electrons
What is the definition to figure out atomic mass?
A- atomic mass # = +o, #p, and #n
What does A stand for and what dies Z stand for?
A- atomic mass and Z- atomic number = protons in nucleus
How many isotopes does carbon have?
3
What is an isotope?
an atom of an element with different mass (different numbers of neutrons)
What is a radio isotope?
Radiation that gives off particloes + e
_____________
time
What are the building blocks of molecules?
atoms
What is a molecule?
smallest unit of a chemical compound. molecules are held together by bonds
What types of bonds are there?
ionic bonds- transfer of electrons (adding 1e-) and the attraction of opposite charged particles
What is a covalent bond?
sharing of e- between atoms and typical for all organic compounds an example is H2O or water
Give an example of an ionic bond.
sodium chloride which is an "ion" charged particle (+ or-)
What are compounds?
Compounds are chemical bonds holding atoms in their molecules
What is a chemical formula?
a chemical formula is a shorthand version of the composition of a molecule an example is in H2O where there are 2 atoms of hydrogen and is combned with one atom of oxygen aniother carbon atom and 2 oxygen atoms and another example is C6 H12 O6
Name two inter/molecular
between
forces of attraction.
One is a van der waal force which are weak forces of attraction between molecules and another force is a stronger force the Di/pole -
2
Di/pole
2
The nucleus is the center of what?
the atom
What is the nucleus made up of?
Protons and neutrons
The negativley charged particles in atoms are called_____________.
electrons
Different isotopes of the same element have different numbers of _________.
neutrons
Isotopes of the same elements have the same chemical properties because they have the same number of ____________.
protons
In an ______ bond, electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
ionic
Explain how an atom becomes an ion.
An atom that loses electrons has a positive charge. An atom that gains electrons has a negative charge. These positively charged atoms are known as ions.
What are the similarities and differences between electrons and protons?
Protons and electrons are similkair in the way that they are both found in an atom. They differ in that protons are a positive charge and electrons are a negative charge.
What is the relationship between atoms and molecules?
An atom is the building block of a molecule.When atoms join together by covalent bonds a molecule results.
What property of radioactive isotopes allows them to be used to determine the age of rocks and fossils?
The isotopes that are found on rocks and fossils.
Water is a compound and consists of 2 ____atoms and ____ oxygen atom.
hydrogen and one oxygen
Name two of waters properties.
1.cohesion- attraction between particles of the same substance
2.adhesion- an attraction between molecules of different substances