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75 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
perspective
Point of view based on a person’s experience and personal understanding
spatial perspective
Point of view based on looking at where something is and why it is there
geography
The study of Earth’s physical and cultural features
urban
An area that contains a city
rural
An area of open land that is often used for farming
absolute location
The exact spot on Earth where something is found, often stated in latitude and longitude
relative location
The position of a place in relation to another place
place
Physical and human features of a specific location
region
Area of Earth’s surface with one or more shared characteristics
movement
People and ideas moving from place to place
diffusion
The movement of ideas or behaviors from one cultural region to another
human-environment interaction
Relationship between people and the environment
human geography
The study of people, past or present
physical geography
The study of Earth’s natural landscape and physical systems, including the atmosphere
cartography
The art and science of mapmaking
meteorology
The field of forecasting and reporting rainfall, temperatures, and other atmospheric conditions
climatology
The field of tracking Earth’s larger atmospheric systems
landforms
The shapes on Earth’s surface
topography
Shape, height, and arrangement of land-forms in a certain place
plate tectonics
The theory that Earth’s surface is divided into several major, slowly moving plates or pieces
subduction
The movement of one of Earth’s heavier tectonic plates underneath a lighter tectonic plate
earthquakes
Sudden, violent movement along a fracture within Earth’s crust
Sudden, violent movement along a fracture within Earth’s crust
Magma that has broken through the crust to Earth’s surface
fault
A fractured surface in Earth’s crust where a mass of rock is in motion
weathering
The process of breaking rocks into smaller pieces through heat, water, or other means
erosion
The movement by water, ice, or wind of rocky materials to another location
plain
A nearly flat area on Earth’s surface
alluvial fan
A fan-shaped landform created by deposits of sediment at the base of a mountain
A fan-shaped landform created by deposits of sediment at the base of a mountain
A landform of level ground built by sediment deposited by a river or stream
deltas
Landforms created by the deposits of sediment at the mouths of rivers
glaciers
Large, slow-moving sheets or rivers of ice
terraces
Horizontal ridges built into the slopes of steep hillsides to prevent soil loss and aid farming,
tributary
Any smaller stream or river that flows into a larger stream or river
groundwater
The water from rainfall, rivers, lakes, and melting snow that seeps into the ground
aquifers
Underground, water-bearing layers of rock, sand, or gravel
water cycle
The circulation of water from Earth’s surface to the atmosphere and back
evaporation
The process by which heated water becomes water vapor and rises into the air
water vapor
The gaseous form of water
condensation
The process by which water changes from a gas into tiny liquid droplets
The process by which water changes from a gas into tiny liquid droplets
The process by which water falls back to Earth
acid rain
A type of polluted rain, produced when pollution combines with water vapor
ozone layer
A form of oxygen in the atmosphere that helps protect Earth from harmful solar radiation
global warming
A slow increase in Earth’s average temperature
greenhouse effect
The process by which Earth’s atmosphere traps heat
weather
The condition of the atmosphere at a given place and time
climate
The weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
prevailing winds
Breezes that consistently blow in the same direction over large areas of Earth
currents
Giant streams of ocean water that move from warm to cold or from cold to warm areas
rain shadow
The dry area on the leeward side of a mountain or mountain range
renewable resources
Resources, such as soils and forests, that can be replaced by Earth’s natural processes
nonrenewable resources
Resources, such as coal and oil, that cannot be replaced by Earth’s natural processes
deforestation
The destruction or loss of forest area
reforestation
The planting of trees in places where forests have been cut down
fossil fuels
Nonrenewable resources formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals
petroleum
An oily liquid that can be refined into gasoline and other fuels and oils
hydroelectric power
A renewable energy resource produced from dams that harness the energy of falling water to power generators
geothermal energy
A renewable energy resource produced from the heat of Earth’s interior
solar power
Heat and light from the sun
culture
A learned system of shared beliefs and ways of doing things that guide a person’s daily behavior,
culture region
Area of the world in which people share certain culture traits,
culture traits
Elements of culture such as dress, food, or religious beliefs
ethnic groups
Cultural groups of people who share learned beliefs and practices
multicultural
A mixture of different cultures within the same country or community
race
A group of people who share inherited physical or biological traits
acculturation
The process of cultural changes that result from long-term contact with another society
symbol
A word, shape, color, flag, or other sign that stands for something else
ethnocentrism
Seeing differences in another culture as inferior
domestication
The growing of a plant or taming of an animal by a people for their own use
subsistence agriculture
A type of farming in which farmers grow just enough food to provide for themselves and their own families
commercial agriculture
A type of farming in which farmers produce food for sale
civilization
A highly complex culture with growing cities and economic activity
gross national product
The value of all goods and services that a country produces in one year within or outside the country
gross domestic product
The value of all goods and services produced within a country
industrialized countries
Countries that rely more on industry than agriculture
literacy rate
Percent of people who can read and write