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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
AIDS
the disease that results when the HIV virus attacks the human immune system
Allergy
a condition in which a person’s immune system is overly sensitive to environmental substances that are normally harmless
Antibodies
proteins, produced by the immune system that either attacks invading pathogens or marks them for killing
Antigen
a molecule found on the outer surfaces of cells that the immune system recognizes either as a part of the body or an outside invader
Bacteria
single-celled organism without a distinct nucleus
Biochemical Process
a chemical process that occurs in a living thing
Catalyst
a substance that can speed up the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed or used up during the reaction
Cellular Respiration
the process in which nutrients are broken apart, releasing the chemical energy stored in them
Chloroplast
the green organelle that contains chlorophyll; where photosynthesis takes place
Disease
a condition, other than injury, that prevents the body from working as it should
Dynamic Equilibrium
the constant small corrections that normally occur to keep an organism’s internal environment within the limits needed for survival
Enzyme
proteins that speed up the rate of chemical reactions in living things
Feedback Mechanism
a cycle in which the output of a system either modifies or reinforces the first action taken by the system
Fungi
an organism that is usually multicellular, have cell walls made of chitin, and are heterotrophic
Gas Exchange
the process of obtaining oxygen from the environment and releasing carbon dioxide
Glucose
a sugar that is a major source of energy for cells
Guard Cells
specialized cells that control the opening and closing of the pores on the surface of a leaf
Homeostasis
the ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment even when the external environment changes
Immune System
The body’s primary defense against disease-causing pathogens
Insulin
a hormone that prompts glucose to move from the blood into the body cells, resulting in a lower glucose level in the blood
Microbe
any microscopic organism
Mitochondria
pod-shaped organelles that contain enzymes used to extract energy from nutrients
Pancreas
an endocrine organ that secretes insulin
Parasite
an organism that survives by living and feeding on other organisms
Pathogen
an organism that invades the body, causing disease
pH
a measure of whether a substance is acidic, neutral, or basic
Photosynthesis
the process by which some organisms are able to capture light energy and use it to make food from carbon dioxide and water
Respiration
the process by which the chemical bond energy stored in nutrients is released for use in cells
Stimuli
any change in the environment that causes an organism to react
Synthesis
a life process that involves combining simple substances into more complex substances
Vaccine
a substance made of weakened, killed, or partial pathogens and designed to protect the body from future invasions of that pathogen
Virus
a nonliving particle of protein and genetic material that reproduces by invading the cell of a living organism