Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/12

Click to flip

12 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is homeostasis?
- greek word meaning "to stay the same"
- internal state better described as dynamic equilibrium.
How are equilibrium conditions maintained?
by feedback mechanisms.
TWO TYPES:
- Negative Feedback: counteracts the effects of changes (ex, thermostat)

-Positive Feedback: reinforces changes to serve a phyiological need. (ex. pregnancy)
What is the control center of the body?
What is the Human body set point?
The human body set point is 98.6 F. (can vary by 1 degree)

The control center of the body is the hypothalamus.
What happens to maintain body temperature?
1. Nerve endings act as temp. sensors and send info to hypothalamus.
2. When temp drops, hypothalamus activates effector mechanisms to raise temp.
*shivering - produce heat
*blood vessel constriction
*blood vessel dilation
*chemical signals to raise metabolic rate.
How is the human body organized?
cells - tissues - organs - organ systems.
Body Cavity?
1. Cranial (brain)
2. Thoracic (chest)
3. Abdomincal (belly)
4. Pelvic (lower digestive system)
What are tissues?
What is the study of tissues called?
What are the four types of tissues?
Tissues are composed of cells that are similar in structure and perform a specialized function.

The study of tissue is called histology.

1. epithelial
2.Connective
3. Muscular
4. Nervous
Epithelial?
Functions?
characteristics?
*epithelial cells which encase all internal and external surfraces.

6 Functions:
1. Protection
2. Absorbtion
3. Sensation
4. Secretion
5. Excretion
6. Surface Transport

Common Characteristics:
- layers are usually only a few cells thick
- tightly packed
- few blood vessels
- can regenerate
How can the tissue be classified?
SHAPE:
1. Squamous : flat, thin linings

2. Cuboidal: looks like cubes

3. Columnar: looks like columns

ARRANGEMENT:
1. Simple: 1 cell thick

2. Stratified: 2 or more layers

3. Psudostratified: only appears layered

4. Transitional: can stretch
Connective Tissue
characteristics?
functions?
Characteristics?
- diverse (many functions)
- vaired composition
- cells usually spaced well apart and embedded in a non-living matrix made up of fluid, gel, fibers, or crystals.

Functions:
1. defense (from antigens)
2. Structure
3. Isolation, Storage, Transport
Defense (connective tissue)what are the three cell types?
Lymphocytes
- type of white blood cell
- part of immune system

Macrophages
- surround and digest foreign particles

Mast Cells
- produce histamine to dilate blood vessels near site of injury.
Structural (connective tissue)
three cell types?
Fibroblasts
- stay in one place
- flat, branching, irregular shape
- secrete 4 types of protein fibers into matrix....

1. Collagen fibers
- protien collagen
-wavy and strong

2. Reticulin Fibers
- protein collagen
- fine and branching

3. Elastic Fibers
- protein elastin
- fibers branch

4. Loose
- collagen and elastin fibers
-fibroblasts

Cartilage cells:
- produce cartilage
- firm, flexible, non stretchy
- contain lacunae: chambers which hold individual cells after matrix secreted

3 types of carilage -->
1. Hyaline Cartilage: end of long bones, fine collagen fibers

2. Elastic Cartilage:
small amount of elastin
flexability

3. Fibrocartilage: great ammount of support
thick bundles of collagen absorbing shocks

Bone cells: also called supporting c.t.
produce bone.