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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the function of the Rough ER?
To synthesize proteins using genetic material translated by ribosomes
What are the functions of Microtubules and what is another name for them?
Intracellular Movement (superhighway for proteins);
What are Microtubules made out of and how does this help the cell?
Structural proteins that form cytoskeleton which keeps all of the organelles where they’re supposed to be
Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur and what is it function?
to create ATP via aerobic respiration to power the cells
T/F: Active Transport goes from an area of higher concentration gradient to lower
False: In passive transport, movement is from lower to higher. In active, it fights against this tendency by expending energy in the form of ATP.
Where is interstitial fluid found?
between cells and vascular compartment
Where would one find ECF?
all cells in the body whose composition is tightly regulated by the body
Active transport is always:
carrier-mediated (ATP, proteins, etc.)
How many fluid compartments are there?
What determines the health of ICF?
Intracellular fluid health is determined by ECF health
What parameters of ECF are the most important?
Temp and pH
What are the components of the homeostatic feedback loop?
Sensor, integrator, effector, and compensatory response
To use the furnace example, which role do the thermometer, thermostat, and furnace play?
Thermometer = sensor which compares against set point

Thermostat = Integrator which recieves info from the sensor and tells the effector to act

Furnace = Effector which receives commands from the integrator and actually executes command
HFL maintanence is provided by transit through the:
circulatory system
Nutrients are:
substrates for maintaining homeostasis
Properties of muscle include:
being made of microfilaments and microtubules and having a high density of mitochondria
what act as barriers for foreign bodies in the internal environment inside epithelium?
lumenal and basolateral membranes (closest to bloodstream); associated with capillaries
Epithelium that are specialized to create more proteins have:
above-average numbers of ER and golgi
Glands are:
specialized epithelium which contain more ER and golgi than the other epithelia.
Exocrine glands secrete:
onto the surface of some organ (sweat on epidermis)
Endocrine gland secrete:
products directly into the blood-stream (hormones)
What type of tissue is the most diverse?
connective (adipose, blood, tendon, bone, etc.)
The major structural protein is:
What are the 4 main components of the plasma membrane?
Structural lipids ([1]phospholipids and [2] cholesterol); [3] proteins; [4] some C chains assoc. w/ lipids and proteins that act as markers (blood type)
What are the major IC and EC ions?
K+ is major IC ion
Na+ is major EC ion
Why can't IC proteins get outside of cells?
They're too large
Why is there very little free Ca++ inside cells?
What does Ca++ do ICy?
Because they are of bound up ICy; initiates cellular function
Why do PMs have limited passive transport potential?
Because they only allow in non-polar molecules (lipids) and very small polar ones
What does amphipathic mean?
That a cell has a polar and non-polar end.
Which side of a phospholipid is hydrophilic and which is hydrophobic?
The PL head is hydrophilic (polar) and its tail is hydrophobic (non-polar)
Why is the model for the PLB bilayer referred to as the Fluid Mosaic Model?
Because the fluid, PLs, is not static and the PM is a mosaic of different components.
What keeps PM stable and prevents them from crystalizing?
Amphipathic cholesterol gets in between fatty acid chains
What's the major differnce between passive and active transport?
The latter requires an energy source, usually ATP, while the former does not
Membrane proteins:
act as surface receptors; allow the passage of polar and ionic molecules; facilitate IC signaling
What kinds of molecules can easily move through the PM passively?
Small lipid soluble molecules, such as fatty acid chains, CO2, & O2 and extremely small polar molecules by way of (usually) specific passive channels on the PM
Large amounts of water do not move through PMs by diffusion but instead use:
aquaporins (water channels)
How is most passive transport accomplished?
Simple diffusion
Net diffusion only occurs when:
there is a positive or negative concentration gradient between two compartments
Net diffusion only applies when:
there is a significant amount of concentration change
Net diffusion is a form of:
simple diffusion
Fick's Law as it applies to the rate of diffusion states that the factors that influence said rate are:
steepness of concentration gradient (dif bet high vs low higher = faster); permeability (more = faster); size or MW (smaller = faster); thickness of diffusion barrier (thinner = faster); surface area available for diffusion (greater = faster)
Osmosis works with semi-permeable membranes because:
solute can't pass through and thus exerts osmotic pressure on the side opposite to that of higher solute concentration
Milliosmols (mOsm) measure:
the # of particles dissolved in H20; plasma is 290 mOsm
T/F: H20 always moves towards a higher level of mOsm/osmolarity
True: this is because it wants to balance out the concentration of the solute by diluting the area with a higher concentration of solute
What is the only type of solution tonicity that is safe to put in the human body?
Isotonic, meaning that it won't affect cell volume; in humans, this is ~290 mOsm
Hypotonic solutions:
move into a cell, increasing cell volume
Hypertonic solutions:
move out of a cell, causing it to shrink
What is required for facilitated diffusion?
A protein carrier which will bind to the substance that is to undergo FD
What is the process of facilitated diffusion?
A molecule binds to a protein, changing its shape, and when the molecule reaches its target cell, it loses affinity for the protein, returning to its original shape
What is a concentration gradient?
The difference between two chambers in terms of their concentration.
T/F: Facilitated diffusion seeks out an area of high concentration
False: it seeks out an area of low concentration to balance the two areas out
What are the limitations of facilitated diffusion?
Specificity of the protein carrier's binding site; competition between similar types of proteins; a limited number of available carriers results in saturation
Facilitated Diffusion is a form of:
assisted passive transport and carrier-mediated transport
The energy source for Primary Active Transport is:
The mechanism P Active Tranport uses is:
Na+/K+ ATPase (pump)
P Active Transport uses ATP to pump:
Na+ out of a cell and K+ in at a ratio of 3:2.
The plasma membrane plays an important role in maintaining intracellular homeostasis by:
Defining external boundary of cell which prevents entry of pathogens and regulates what can come into cell; maintaining the difference in fluid composition inside vs outside; maintiaing ion concentration inside vs outside; keeping IC contents in
What are the functions of the plasma membrane?
Sensing Environment
Control Entry and Exit
Eliminate CO2 + waste
Receive Protein Enzymes
break down H202 which would otherwise be toxic to a cell.
Mitochondria is where
oxidative phosphorilation (creates ATP [aerobic respiration])
Lysosomes are
generic; contain digestive enzymes that break down carbs, fats, etc
Vesicular Transport is
a form of active transport that is either endo- or exocytotic
Vesicular transport involves
large particles being wrapped in a membrane-enclosed vesicle, which requires ATP
Exocytotic products form in
the ER and Golgi Complex
Exocytosis results in an increase or decrease of Ca2+ levels?
It results in an increase to overcome the membrane potential
Receptor-mediated endocytosis is when:
both a receptor and the target molecule is brought into the cell, such as insulin
Gain in a control system is
Correction over Error
A system with a low gain is:
more precise, as in pH regulation
Before an effector can act in a control system:
a predictor determines how much change will occur based on past experience and natural affinity
Integrators send a:
duplicate command to both the effector and predictor.
The CNS is made up of:
the brain and the spinal cord
Secondary Active Transport involves symporters and antiporters and uses:
potential energy stored in the concentration gradients of certain substances, the most important of which is the Na+ conc. gradient
the Na+ conc. gradient:
causes Na+ to move against its ionic concentration gradient, which maintains the electrical and osmotic integrity of the cell
The efferent division of the PNS:
contains the ANS and the somatic nervous system, which controls voluntary motor function, as well as effector organs composed of glands and tissue
The afferent division of the PNS controls:
conscious sensory stimuli and visceral stimuli in the form of BP control or pain
The CNS communicates with the PNS via the:
Efferent division
The PNS communicates with the CNS via the:
Afferent division
The sympathetic subdivision of the ANS is the:
fight or flight division
The parasympathetic division is the:
relaxation division
Both division of the ANS work on :
smooth and cardiac muscle and glands
Membrane Potential (MP) is
Difference in charge of inside of cell compared to outside
K+ ions are found:
inside cells
- charged amino acids are found
inside cells
All cells are negatively charged internally because
they have proteins that can’t leave
ECF is positively charged because of the presence of:
Na+ ions
signal toward the cell body
signals away from the cell body. The axon is also called the nerve fiber.
The first part of the axon plus the part of the cell body where the axon exits is:
the axon hillock
The part of a neuron that has the lowest threshold for action potential is:
the axon hillock
The electrical gradient of IntraC K+ is the:
opposite of the concentration gradient
when the concentration and electrical gradient are equal but pointing in opposite directions:
equilibrium potential is reached and no movement occurs
K+ has an equilibrium potential of:
-90 mV
Na+ has an equilibrium potential of:
+60 mV