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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Torticollis
Spasmodic contraction of cervical muscles producing twisting of the neck with chin pointing upward and to opposite side
-Due to injury to SCM or avulsion of CN XI
Lesion of CN XI
-Denervates trapezius leading to downward displacement or drooping of shoulder
Carotid endarterectomy
Excision of atherosclerotic plaque of internal carotid artery
Thyroidectomy and what can be injured
- INFERIOR THYROID VEIN is most vulnerable in this procedure
-Also can damage recurrent laryngeal nerve
-Can also inadvertently remove parathyroid glands which can be fatal
Retropharyngeal abscess or infection can spread to _
Posterior mediastinum through retropharyngeal space
Bells palsy
Paralysis of facial muscles resulting from lesion of facial nerve.
- Distortions - sagging corner of the eye, inability to smile, whistle or blow, inability to close or blink the eye
Blink reflex
Closure of the eye in response to blowing on cornea or touching it with wisp of cotton
Efferent limb - facial nerve
Afferent limb - nasocilary nerve of ophtalmic division of trigeminal nerve
Trigeminal neuralgia
Pain along the course of the trigeminal nerve, especially radiating to maxillary and mandibular area. Can be treated by cutting sensory root of CN V
Danger area of face
Area of face near nose drained by facial veins. Skin infections on the side of nose and upper lip may spread to cavernous venous sinus via facial vein, pterygoid venous plexus and ophtalmic veins - this can lead to meningitis and cavernous sinus thrombosis
Scalp hemorrhage
Results from laceration of arteries in dense connective tissue layer - arteries are unable to contract or retract and remain open leading to profuse bleeding
Scalp infection
-Loose connective tissue spreads infection
Rupture of middle meningeal artery
-Fracture of squamous part of temporal bone and causes epidural hematoma
Mumps
Inflammation of parotid gland
-Pain is mediated by auriculotemporal nerve
Skull fracture at pterion can result in _
Rupture of middle meningeal artery
Subdural hematoma
-Caused by rupture of bridging cerebral veins
Lesion of olfactory nerve
Anosmia
Lesion of optic nerve
Ipsilateral blindness + no direct pupillary light reflex
Lesion of optic chiasma
Bilateral tunnel vision
Lesion of optic tract
Contralteral tunnel vision
Lesion of oculomotor nerve
-Paralysis of ocular muscles resulting from damage to GSE fibers
-Paralysis of sphincter pupillae resulting in dilation of pupil
-Paralysis of ciliary muscle resulting in loss of accomodation because of damage to parasympathetic fibers
-Lesion interferes with pupillary reflex because of damage of parasympathetic fibers that mediate efferent limb of pupillary light reflex
Lesion of trochlear nerve
Paralysis of superior oblique muscles
Lesion of trigeminal nerve
-Sensory loss of the face and motor loss of muscles of mastication with deviation of jaw toward the side of lesion
-If you lesion lingual nerve get loss of general and taste sensation to anterior 2/3 of tongue and salivary secretion of submandibular and sublingual glands
-Lose afferent limb of corneal reflex, sneeze reflex and jaw jerk reflex
Lesion of abducens nerve
Paralysis of lateral rectus leading to medial deviation of the eye
Lesion of facial nerve
-Loss of SVE fibers to innervate muscles of facial expression
-Loss of SVA(taste) fibers from anterior 2/3 of the tongue
-Parasympathetic GVE fibers for glands
-Loss of eferent limb of corneal blink reflex
Lesion of glossopharyngeal nerve
Loss of hearing and balance