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156 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is ATP
A form of energy that can be used by cells to run things
Where is ATP produced
Mitochondria
What is the TCA cycle also called
Krebbs cycle & tricarboxylic acid cycle
in the middle of a race a long distace runner burns________as the main fuel sourse
fat
When approaching the finish line tied with another competitor, a long distance runner's body would like start to draw which fuel
glycogen stores of glucose
A weight lifter's body is likely to burn what as a fuel source
glucose
BUN stands for what and what does it indicate?
Blood Urea Nitrogen, kidneys are not working well.
what is the loading effort to have more carb energy available for competition
glycogen
the metabolic by-products of burning protein for energy are....
energy, CO2, Water, and nitrogen
the metabolic by-products of carbs for energy are
energy, CO2, water
the metabolic by-products of fat for energy are
energy, CO2, water
When is lactic acid made?
when O2 is not available at the last step of glycolysis
what does the protein burned in fat result in
more nitrogen waste to excrete
Where is glycogen stored
the liver and muscles
How many carbons long is acetate
2
During anaerobic metabolism what does the body do?
spends fuel rapidly and lactic acid accumulates
what is acetylCoA
a combination of acetate and CoA that enters the TCA cycle
If a snack is advertised as high energy it means?
It has alot of calories in it
In anaerobic metabolism the body burns what fuel
glucose
Where does energy production occur
in the mitochondria of cells
What is Urea
a form of nitrogen that is excreted in the urine. If kidneys dont work right BUN increases
What is gluconeogenesis
the making of new glucose out of other materials like amino acids
What does the beta in beta oxidation refer to
it is the 2nd carbon in teh chain
what is glucagon
hormone that tells you that your blood sugar is low, and it tells your liver to send out glucose from stored glycogen in the liver
What does brown fat do
produces heat instead of ATP when it is burned
How is the blood brain barrier related to energy production?
Only tiny molecules like glucose can pass through to be fuel for the brain
how are fatty acids broken down
beta oxidation
What is the P in ATP
phosphorus
What is the factor that initiats muscle building
exercise
Why are babies born with brown fat on their upper backs
to protect them from sudden cold
what does aerobic fitness reflect
how well a person is able to deliver O2 to the tissues that need it
what does the brain use for fuel when glucose is unavailable
ketones
what does anaerobic mean
not O2 is involved
is lifting a heavy weight aerobic or anaerobic
anaerobic
the # of calories in 1g of fat is?
9
the # of calories in 1g of protein is?
4
the # of calories in 1g of carb is
4
what is the body's least favorite fuel for burning?
protein-extra waste to get rid of
what is the pathway that chops up fatty acids for fuel called
beta oxidation
what is peristalsis
the process that food moves through the digestive system
what are ketones made of
fat when there is too little glucose available.
What is the name of the build up of ketones
ketosis
why is ketosis harmful?
too much makes the system acidic---enough to pickle ones brain
What is cellulose
a long chain of glucose molecules that we cannot digest-fiber in our diet
Where are carbs stored in animals
liver and muscles
what is F CHO made of
nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen,and carbon
Why were the Pima Indians studies?
they have a gene that helps them store fat and develop diabetes easily
what is the last section in the process of making ATP
oxidative phosphorylation
What are ketones
small pieces of fat 3-4 carbons long that have to be made in the liver and used to feed the brain when glucose is unavailable
why are bears allowed to hibernate
they have brown fat
why would iron deficiency cause fatigue and interfere with energy production
Iron is required in the TCA cycle and all along the electron transport chain. The cytochromes there are iron containing substances
how can hyperammonemia be esitmated
have a person draw a star
What are thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin
B vitamins 1, 2, & 3
What are the B vitamins role in ATP production
they are cofactors in making ATP, by helping to transfer sparks to the electron transport chain
what is the name for Thiamin deficiency
beri-beri
where are cytochromes found in ATP production
in the electron transport chain
what mineral is a central component of cytochromes
iron
what is oxidative phsophorylation
the last step in capturing energy to make ATP out of ADP plus an extra P
True or False: ATP production occurs only in the liver and then it is distributed to other cells
false-it is in all cells except RBC
What is CoA
A "panhandle" that is needed to move things around, like to move acetate into the TCA cycle by forming acetylCoA
what does aerobic fitness reflect
how well a person is able to deliver O2 to the tissues that need it
what does the brain use for fuel when glucose is unavailable
ketones
what does anaerobic mean
not O2 is involved
is lifting a heavy weight aerobic or anaerobic
anaerobic
the # of calories in 1g of fat is?
9
the # of calories in 1g of protein is?
4
the # of calories in 1g of carb is
4
what is the body's least favorite fuel for burning?
protein-extra waste to get rid of
what is the pathway that chops up fatty acids for fuel called
beta oxidation
what is peristalsis
the process that food moves through the digestive system
what are ketones made of
fat when there is too little glucose available.
What is the name of the build up of ketones
ketosis
why is ketosis harmful?
too much makes the system acidic---enough to pickle ones brain
What is cellulose
a long chain of glucose molecules that we cannot digest-fiber in our diet
Where are carbs stored in animals
liver and muscles
what is ATP
A form of energy that can be used by cells to run things
Where is ATP produced
Mitochondria
What is the TCA cycle also called
Krebbs cycle & tricarboxylic acid cycle
in the middle of a race a long distace runner burns________as the main fuel sourse
fat
When approaching the finish line tied with another competitor, a long distance runner's body would like start to draw which fuel
glycogen stores of glucose
A weight lifter's body is likely to burn what as a fuel source
glucose
BUN stands for what and what does it indicate?
Blood Urea Nitrogen, kidneys are not working well.
what is the loading effort to have more carb energy available for competition
glycogen
the metabolic by-products of burning protein for energy are....
energy, CO2, Water, and nitrogen
the metabolic by-products of carbs for energy are
energy, CO2, water
the metabolic by-products of fat for energy are
energy, CO2, water
When is lactic acid made?
when O2 is not available at the last step of glycolysis
what does the protein burned in fat result in
more nitrogen waste to excrete
Where is glycogen stored
the liver and muscles
How many carbons long is acetate
2
What is a high energy phosphate bond"
Lots of energy captured by joining phosphorus molecules together that can be broken to release the energy for use. ATP and creatine are examples
What is creatine
A high energy phosphate bond that is similar to ATP and the subject of interest in sports
What is meant by protein sparing
It means that you have enough calories from CHO and/or fat to meet your fuel needs, so you will not have to burn your muscles or the protein in your diet for fuel
What is the fate of protein consumed but not needed at the moment
It is converted to fat or CHO and stored and the N is excreted as urea
ATP production was described in class as what
using fuel to generate and gather sparks to make batteries
What provides energy
CHO, protein, fat
Glycolyis is what
anaerobic and aerobic. The first sparks can be made without O2 delivery, but the last step requires O2
Is beta oxidation aerobic or anaerobic
aerobic
What cycle is ATP made in
TCA
What was the electron transport described as
bucket brigade passing along sparks like ppl pass buckets of water to put out fires, or pass sandbags to build dikes
What was Coenzyme A described as
a panhandle
With what substance will pyruvate form from glucose metabolism
O2
If a person eats several times the amt of protein needed in a day it will_____
be burned as fuel or stored as fat
The organ responsible for BMR
Thyroid
What causes heartburn
Seepage of gastric acid into the esophagus
How is acid in the stomach neutralized
bicarbonate from the pancreas
Why are villi important
they increase the absorptive surface area.
Where is the iliem
sm intestine
What does BMR stand for
Basal Metabolic Rate-the calories you burn just sitting doing nothing
What is the major metabolic organ.
liver
what is another name for Celiac disease
gluten sensitive enteropathy
Osmolality
H2O and particles trying to even things out on both sides
What happens to lactose that remains in the intestine because of malabsorption
water will be attracted from the body to the intestine resulting in diarrhea
What is an issue in lactose intolerance
disaccharides
what is glycogen
stored form of carbohydrate
where are disaccharidases produced
in the villi
what operates on starches and fat
amylases and lipases
What does the acid in the stomach do
kills germs that come with food, helps with digestion of vitamin B12 and it is involved in digestion process
where is bile produced
liver
where is bile stored
gallbladder
what is ATP
A form of energy that can be used by cells to run things
Where is ATP produced
Mitochondria
What is the TCA cycle also called
Krebbs cycle & tricarboxylic acid cycle
in the middle of a race a long distace runner burns________as the main fuel sourse
fat
When approaching the finish line tied with another competitor, a long distance runner's body would like start to draw which fuel
glycogen stores of glucose
A weight lifter's body is likely to burn what as a fuel source
glucose
BUN stands for what and what does it indicate?
Blood Urea Nitrogen, kidneys are not working well.
what is the loading effort to have more carb energy available for competition
glycogen
the metabolic by-products of burning protein for energy are....
energy, CO2, Water, and nitrogen
the metabolic by-products of carbs for energy are
energy, CO2, water
the metabolic by-products of fat for energy are
energy, CO2, water
When is lactic acid made?
when O2 is not available at the last step of glycolysis
what does the protein burned in fat result in
more nitrogen waste to excrete
Where is glycogen stored
the liver and muscles
How many carbons long is acetate
2
what does the acid in the stomach do
kills germs from food, helps with digestion of B12, and is involved in digestion process
where is bile produced
liver
where is bile stored
gallbladder
where is bicarbonate released from
pancreas
itis
inflammation of
osis
presence of
ectomy
removing
ostomy
making an opening
opathy
related to disease
gen
making or producing
lys
breaking
yl
attached to
whre is the only place where B12 can be absorbed
terminal ileum
what is digestion
chops things up to get ready to try to bring the nutrients into the body
what is absorption
the actual passing of nutrients into the body from the intestinal lumen
what is the endocrine function of the pancreas
making insulin and glucagon
what is an exocrine function of the pancreas
making digestion enzymes and squirting them our the intestinal lumen
What is the body's preferred fuel for quick bursts of activity
glucose
what is the usual GI finding in uncontroled celiac disease
absent villi in the intestines
wheat rye and barley are problems in what disease
celiac disease
amylases and lipases operate on what
starches and fats