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20 Cards in this Set

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Cyrus
Founder of the Achaemenid Persian empire. Between 550 and 530 bc he conquored Media, Lydia, and babylon. Revered in the traditions of both Iran and the subject peoples, he employed persians and Medes in his administration and respected the institutions and beleifs of sunject peoples.
Darius 1
Third ruler of persian empire (521-486 bc)He crushed the widespread initial resistence to his rule andgave all major goverment post to persians rather than medes. He established a system of provinces and tribute, began construction of the persopolis, and expanded persian control into the east and west.
satrap
The governor of a province in the Achaemenid Persian empire, often a relative of the king. He was responsible for the protection of the province and for fowarding tribute to the central administration. Satraps in outlying provinces enjoyed considerable autonomy.
Persopolis
A complex of palaces, reception halls, and tresury buildings erected by the Persian kings Darius 1 and Xerxes in the persian homeland. It is beleived that the new years festival was celebrated here, as well as the coronations, wedding, and funerals of the persian kings, who were buried in cliff tombs near by.
Zoroastrianism
A religion that originatted in ancient Iran with the prophet Zoroaster. It centraled on a single benevolent diety who engaged in a 12 thousand year struggle with demonic forces before prevailing and restoring a pristine world. Religion demanded that humans choose sides between good and evil.
polis
The Greek term for a city state, an urban center and agricultural territory under its control.
hoplite
A heavily armored greek infantry man of the Archaic and classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx formation. Hoplite armies- militias composed of middle and upper class citizens- were for centuries superior to all other military forces.
tyrant
Term Greeks used for someone who seized and held power in violationof the normal procedures and traditions of the community.
sacrifice
A gift given to a diety, often with the aim of creating a relationship, gaining favor with, and obliging a god to provide some benifit to the sacraficer, sometimes in order to sustain the diety and thereby garuntee the vitality of the natural world.
democracy
A system of government in which all "citizens" (however defined) have equal political and legal rights, privlages, and protections, as in the greek city state of athens.
Herodotus
Heir to the technique of histria-"investigation"- developed by the greeks in the late Archiac period. He traced the ancesdents and chronicled the Persian wars between the greek city states and the persian empire, thus originating the western tradition of historical writing.
Pericles
Aristocratic leader who guided the athenian state throughthe transformation of full participitory democracy for all male citizens, supervised the construction of the Acropolis, and pursued a policy of imperial expansion that led to the Peloponnesian war. He formulated a strategy of attrition but died from the plague early in the war.
Persian wars
Conflict between the Greek city-states and the persian empire, ranging from the ionian revolt through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon and the defeat of Xerxes massive invasion of greece by the spartan led Hellinic league.
trireme
Greek and phonecian warships of the fifth and fourth centuries bc. It was sleek and light, powered by 170 oars arranged in three verticle tiers. Manned by skilled sailors, it was capable of short burst of speed andcomplex manuervers.
Socrates
Athenian philosopher who shifted the emphisis of philosophic investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior. He attracted young disciples from elite families butmade enimies by revealing the ignorance and pretensions of others, culminating in his trial and exicution by the Athenian state.
Peloponnesian War
A protracted and costly conflict between the athenian and Spartan alliance systems that convulsed most of the greek world. The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism. Possession of a naval empire allowed athens to fight a war of attrition.
Ultimatly, Sparta prevailed because of Athenian error and persian financial support.
Alexander
King of Macedonia in northern Greece. Between 334 and 323he conquored the Persian empire, reached the Indus valley, founded many greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across The middle east.
Hellinistic age
Historian's term for the era, usually dated 323-30 bc , in which greek culture spread across western asia and northeaster africa after the conquest of Alexander the great.
Ptolemies
The Macedonian dynasty, decended from one of Alexander the great's officers, that ruled egypt for three centuries. From their magnificant capital at alexandria on the mediterranian coast, the ptolemieslaregly took over the system created by Egyptian Pharohsto extract wealth of the land, rewarding greeks and hellinized non greeks serving the military and administration.
Alexandria
City on the mediterranian coast of Egypt founded by Alexander. It became the capital of the hellinistic kingdom of the Ptoemies. It contained the famous library and muesam- a center for the leading scientifc and literary figures. Its merchants engaged in trade with areas bordering the mediterranean and indian ocean.