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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When was the 13th Amendment to the Constitution passed?
Collectively, the three amendments, the 13th, 14th, and the 15th Amendments to the Constitution are known as:
The Civil War Amendments
What were the years spent debating the notioin of legal equality following the Civil War?
What were the years debating the question of achieving actual equality through governmental policies?
In 1955, who refused to move from her seat on a bus in Montgovery, Alabama that eventually led to a Supreme Ct ruling re: civil rights and segregated transportation?
Rosa Parks
T or F
Women are not a numerical minority.
What is the unequla treatment based on race, ethnicity, gender, and other distinction?
What did Article VI, Secxtion 2, of the Constitution mandate?
the return of fugitive slaves
What are the contiutionally guaranteed rights that may not be arbitrarily removed by the government. Among these are the right to vote and equal protection under the law?
civil rights
List 3 exclusions by law affecting African Americans enacted in the infancy of the US
1. procedure for immigrants to vecome citizens (1790)
2. service in the militia (1792)
3. right to carry the mail (1810)
Describe the Missouri Compromise:
Missouri was admitted as a slave state along with the free state of Maine, and slavery was prohibited in the remainder of the Louisiana Purchase territory north of Missouri's southern border.
Who led a rebellion of @ 70 slaves in Virginia, killing dozens of white men within 12 hours with the insurgents defeated by 100's of soldiers, and was executed as a result?
Nat Turner in August 1831
What is the equlaity before the law that requires that there be no legally mandated obstacles to equal treatment, such as laws that prevent people from voting, living where they want to, or taking advantage of all the rights guaranteed to individuals by the laws of the federal, state, and local governments?
de jure equality
What is the equlaity of results, which measure whether real-world obstacles to equal treatment exist, including the example, do people actually live where they want to?
de facto equality
T or F
De facto equality remains a d istant objective.
Why did the Contitution's framers ignore the plight of the slaves?
There had to be compromise to preserve the economic position of the southern states
What act allowed runaway slaves to be captured (even in parts of the nation where slavery was outlawed) and returned to slave owner?
Fugitive Slave Law (1793)
Describe the Compromise of 1850:
California was admitted as a free state,
Eliminated the slave trade from the District of Columbia,
New Mexico and Utah were not given federal restrictions
When was the Dred Scott case decided?
Describe the facts @ the Dred Scott Supreme Ct case:
Dred Scott was a slave who had been taken by his master from Missouri into the free state of Illinois and the free territory of Wisconsin. When his master died and Scott was returned to Missouri, he claimed that because he had lived in areas where slavery was illega, he was now a free man.
Describe the Supreme Ct's decision in the Dred Scott case:
Ct ruled that SCott could not sue in federal ct because no African American, free or enslaved, could ever become a citizen of the United States.
What law was ruled unconstitutional because the Ct decided that Congress could not deprive people of their property rights, in this case their slaves, under the due process clause of the 5th amendment.
Dred Scott
What ct case ruled that African Americans were "not included, and were not intended to be included, under the word, "citizens" in the Constitution, and therefore, had no rights under it?
Dred Scott decision.
List 3 colleges who in the past were partially funded by the slave trade in the US?
1. Yale's first scholarships
2. Brown University
3. Harvard Law School
Describe the Civil Liberties Act of 1988:
Offered $20,000 in reparations and a letter of apoligy to all of those still alive following the internment of over 110,000 Japanese-Americans during WWII
What is the name for laws restricting the civil rights of blacks?
Black codes
What is the name for the right to vote?
By the time the 13th Amendment was passed in 1865, what other laws had already been passed to strengthen African American rights?
1. allow to testify against whites in fed courts. (1864)
2. grant equal & benefits to all soldiers (1864)
3. est. the Freedmen's Bureau (1865)
What was the purpose of the Freedmen's Bureau?
an agency of the War Dept. that was authorized to assist the newly freed slaves in making the transformation to freedom.
What was the purpose of black codes?
to restrict the civil rights of blacks and enforce oppressive labor practices designed to keep them working on plantations.
Describe the Civil Rights Act of 1866?
made African Americans US citizens and empowered the the fed gov't to enforce those rights.
What did the Ku Klux Klan Acts legislate?
made it a federal offense for 2 or more people to conspire to deprive citizens of their equal protection and voting rights.
Describe the case US v. Cruikshank:
Cruikshank was part of a white mob that murdered 60 African Americans in front of a courthouse. Since murder was not a fed. offense & the state had no intentions of prosecuting anyone for the crime, the members of the mob were indicted on charges of interfering with the murdered men's right to assemble.
Describe the ruling of US v. Cruikshank:
Under the 14th Amend. only state action was subject to decisions by the fed. court. Thus, the fed govn't could not prosecute private individuals. The ruling left the states free to ignore lynchings, assaults, and mob actions against African Americans within their borders.
What did the Jim Crow laws do?
Separated the races in public places.
What ct case challenged the Jim Crow laws?
Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896
Describe the Plessy V. Ferguson ct. case:
Plessy, who was 1/8th African Amercian had sought to ride in a railroad car designated as "whites only", rather than in the car at the end of the train designated for "coloreds only." as required by law, had been arrested.
What was the ruling in Plessy V. Ferguson?
Supreme Ct. upheld the arrest, stating that the 14th Amendment regulated only political equality and not social equality.
Describe the Cumming v. County Board of Ed. (1899)
The court approved "separate but equal" public schools in Georgia. Though the faciliites were not really "equal," by claiming that public schools were a subje ct for state rather than fed. jurisdiction, the Ct. could let segregation stand.
List 3 qualifications for voting that sought to limit African Americans from the voting rolls (lists of people who could vote)
1. property qualifications
2. literacy tests
3. Understanding clause _ correct interpretations of a clause of the state const.
Define "understanding clause"
a qualification used that only permitted people to vote if they could properly interpret a protion of the state constitution.
Name a 4th qualification to voting that involved family lineage?
"Grandfather clause" - exempted from property qualification or literacy tests to anyone whose relatives could have voted in 1867, thus excluding the freed slaves.
LIst a 5th qualification that obstructed poor African Americans from voting?
"poll tax" a fee for voting
Who founded Tuskegee Institute?
Booker T. Washington
What was Booker T. Washington's philosophical solution for establishing equality for African Americans?
racism would evetually end of African Americans would accept their situation, work khard, and improve their education.
Describe W.E.B. DuBois's philosophy for ending discrimination?
all forms of racial segregation and discriminations should be aggressively attacked and eradicated
Who was the fir African American to earn a PH.D. from Harvard?
W.E.B. DuBois
Who founded in the NAACP?
WEB Dubois with other African Americans and concerned white people. in 1909.
What does NAACP stand for?
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
What is peonage?
when employers advace wages and then required workers to remain on their jobs, in effect enslaving them, until the debt was satisfied
Which amendment was used to strike down the practice of peonage?
13th Amendment
What did Guinn v. US do?
Using the 15th Amend., it struck down an Oklahoma's law exempting whites from the literacy test required for votin.
When did the Supreme Ct. find that TExas's white-primary law violated the equal protection clause of the 14th Amend.?
Describe the Civil Rights Act of 1964:
increased the govt's ability to fight discrimination by:
1. withholding fed funds from segregated schools, and
2. empowered the Atty General to inititate school desegregations suits.
What was missing from the Brown I and the Brown II decisions?
a directo order to compel integration
What is the idea that "people should have equal rights and opportunities to develop their talents," that all people should begin at the same starting point in a race?
Equality of Opportunity
What is the idea that all forms of inequliaty, including economic disparities, should be completely eradicated; this may mean giving some people an advantange at the start so that everyone will complete the race at the same point?
Equality of Result
What are programs that guarantee a certain percentage of admission, new hires, or promotions to members of nimority groups?
quota programs.
T or F
A result of quota systems' equality of result for minorites takes away equlity of opportunity for majority applicants.
When did affirmative action programs begin?
Pres. Johnson when he required fed contactors in construction and business.
Describe the BAKKE case:
Bakke was a med school applicant to the UC at Davis who claimed he was more qulified than some of the minority candidated who were admitted. UC at Davis had set aside 16/100 spots for minority applicants
Describe the BAKKE decision:
During what presidential administration did the Supreme CT start to set specific limits on the use of affirmative action?
REagan administration
What act determined that in areas where less that 50% of the pop. had been registered to vote or had voted in the 1964 pres. election were automatically found to be in violation of the law?
Voting Rights Act of 1965
List 2 cases that reached the Supreme Ct. challenging the Civil Rights Act of 1964:
1. Heart of Atlanta Motel v. US, and
2. Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections
Describe Heart of Atlanta Motel v. US:
Motel owner claimed that as a private business was not subject to 14trh Amend. Ct ruled that since it was accessible to interstate travelers it did apply.
Describe the Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections case:
held that all poll taxes even those iimposed by states, violated the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment.
T or F
In the South, segregation had been de facto.
False, it was de jure or sanctioned by law.
T or F
In the North, segregation was de jure,
False, it was de facto and was developed out of social, economic, and other nongovernmental factors.
When did Pres. Johnson sign into law the Civils Rights Act of 1968?
1 week after REv. King was assassinated, on April 4, 1968.
What did the Civil Rights Act of 1968 do?
It banned housing discrimination of all types.
What Supreme Ct decision finally ordered that every school district must "terminate dual school systems at once and... operate... only unitary schools."?
Alexander v. HOmes County Board of Ed. in 1969.
What Supreme Ct. decision held that busing numerical qotas for racial balancing and other techniques were constitutionally acceptable means of remedying past discrimination?
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Ed.
What is the name for p\rograms that attempt to improve the chances of minority applicants for jobs, housing, employement or graduate admissions by giving them a "boost" relagtive to white applicants with roughly the same qualifications?
Affirmative Action
What is a resulting problem for affirmative programs?
Such efforts appear to discriminate against white applicants.
Describe the facts @ the Brown v. Board of Ed. case:
9yo Linda Brown was denied entrance into the all-white school in Topeka, KS.
What is the gov't efforts to balance the racial composition in schools and public places?
Which pres. signed exec. order prohibiting discrimination in the defense business and created a temporary wartime agency, the FEPC (Fair Employment Practices Committee?
Franklin Roosevelt
Which pres issued exec. order making the FEPC a permanent execu. branch agency?
What was Truman's most significant action in relation to desegregation?
In 1948, he issued an exec. order prohibiting segregation in themilitary and in fed. employment.
What did Truman ask Cpongress to pass but was thwarted by the conservative southerners who had split from the Democratic party?
He asked Cpongress to :
1. ban discrimination by private employers and labor unions,
2. outlaw poll taxes,
3. pass federal anti-lynching law,
4. create a permanement civil rights commission, and
5. compel fair elections.
Who led the conservative southerners who split from the Democrats and who thwarted Truman's efforts to desegragate the US?
South Carolina's Strom Thurmond
When did the NAACP lead a fight to have a Missouri statute that met the state's separate but equal requirement by offering tuition refunds to African American who attended an out-of-state law. School?
Who led the NAACP in 1950 in their challenge against the U of TExas law school's separate but equal plan, in which African American students were taught in the basement of an Austin office building rather than at the highly regarded state university?
Thurgood Marshall
What was the NAACP's strategy in challenging segregation in the US public schools?
To attack the Plessy decision by focusing on the intangible psychological effects of separate but equal public school facilities.
What event occurred that changed the complexion of the US Supreme CT that directly imnpacted the outcome of the Brown v. School Board decision?
The death of Chief Justice Fred Vinson, who was unsympathetic to the attack on segregation.
Who became the new chief justice of the US Supreme CT who persuaded the rest of the ct to render a unanimous decision in the Brown v. School Board case?
Chief Justice Earl Warren
What was the essential argument by Chief Justice Warren in the Brown v. Board of Ed decision?
Because segregated schools put African American children at a disadvantage, they violated the equal prot4ection clause of the 14th Amend.
What other decision was rendered the same day as the Brown v. Board of Ed.?
The US Supreme Ct struck down the Washington, DC's segregation in their public schools relying on the 5th Amend. due process clause to deal with schools under federal govn't supervision.
T of F
Pres. Eisenhower had to send in fed troops to help 9 African Americans desegregate the Central High School in Little Rock AK.
Who founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference?
Rev. Martin Luther King
What is the term for breaking the law in a nonviolent fashion and being willing to suffer the consequences, even to the point of going to jail, in order to publicly demonstrate that the law is unjust?
civil disobedience
What is the refusal to patronize any organization that practices policies that percieved to be unfar for political economic or ideaological reasons?
What is a march in which people walk down a main street carrying signs, singing songs, and chanting slogans?
protest march
What type of action did Rev. King advocate in order to promote change?
civil disobedience
In what city did the famous "Bus Boycott" take place?
Montgomery, AL
In what city did the famous "Lunch counter protests" take place?
Oklahoma City, OK
Who were civil rights activists who traveled throughout the South on buses to test compliance with the Supreme Ct's mandate that transportation facilities accommodating interstate passengers be integrated?
Freedom riders
Pres. Kennedy sent Justice Department officals to what city to work out a compromise between protesters and a segregationist police commisioner?
Birmingham, AL
Which president urged Congress in 1963 to "enact a civil rights law so that we can move forward to eliminate from this nation every trace of discrimination and oppression that is based upon race or color?"
Pres. Lyndon Johnson
Which amendment prohibited the use of poll taxes in fed elections?
24th Amend.