Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
byzantine empire
eastern half of the Roman empire, greek major populatin group in central,
capital of byzantium, center of christiantiy and trade, built by constantine in 330, Bosphorous and Dardenelss straits, control over Mediterranian and Black seas, natural protection,
new rome
constantinoiple, people Roman and spoke latin, richest part of the Roman empire, most advanced civilization in the world
Bosphorous strait
b/w maramara and black seas
striat b/w maramara and agean
Eastern orthodoxy
new branch of christainity, ruled by Patriarch, emperor head over church and state, less strict marriage rules ect. liked icons language was greek
Roman Catholic
lead by Pope- supreme authoriy, Language was Latin, Strict marriage rules, Dislicked icons,
emperor at height of empire, son of peseants in Macedonia, threat to east by Chosroes I of persian empire, put down and payed tribute, dream restore Roman empire, ragained germanic land, costly, after death decline and territory lost, piublic works, Hagia Sophia,intervened with church affairs and tried to unfy emprie under 1 christian faith
justinians wife, large influence on him, saved his carrer during Nika rebellion passed laws to help women, established hospitals and shelters for women and children, actress, ruled whil justianina had the plague
Nika rebellion
Hippodrome colors, fights, arrested 7 leaders 5 executed and 2 escaped , caught and said piut to death, revolt, justinian about to flee, Theodora saves day, Belasarrius puts down revolt, never challenged again
General Belissarius
poor and little skill, good fighter, head Byzantine army,
Justinians code
commision to codify empires roman laws, 10 scholars lead by Tribonian, Corpous of civil law, collection of old roman laws
gods representatives on earth, crowned by the patriarch of constantinople, defended christain fatih, defined style of worship, used church wealth for gov.
chruch officials such as priests and bishops
church members who were not clercy, intensly interested inchurch affairs, religiouds discussions turned into political issues
iconoclast controversy
started with emperor LeeIII who saids icons encopuraged superstition and so he had them all removed, people siad that the bible prohibited it, symbols of gods presence in human affairs, Roman pope disagree excommunicated leo, John of Damascus, Council of Nicea approved icons, Empress irene approved so long as 2 dimen.
schism of churhc
Pope of rome said he was the supreme leader of the churhc, challenged control, Lombards invaded, Pope asked for help but patriarch refused, Franks helped, won, Pope made Pipin the Short empror. only patriarch allowed ot od that, excommunicated each other, schism
religous teachings
social system
heiarchy, flexible and could change groups, family was the center, marriage was sacred, divorce was difficult,
womens rights Byzantine
somewhat secluded, Theodora helped, some were well educated and political influence, regents,
Byzantine economy
farming and working laborors, mahjor trade influence, Med. and Black seas, Golden Horn, Silk- stolen by 2 monks
Byzantine Art
icons, religious themes, saints and religious figures, churches- Hagia Sophia, mosaics, illuminated manuscrpits
University of Constantinople, government supported, religious schools, women not commonly accepted
religous theme, salvation of the soul, books- lives of saints and moral lessons, copied writings of Greeks and Romans, spread classical knowledge
religious communities, helped poor, ran hospitals and spread art and learning
monks/ nuns
men/ women who sought to develop a spiritual life away from the temptations of life
people who carried a religious message
Cyril and Methodious
developed cyrillic alphabet to dpread christianity to thye north and make it easier to adopt- slavic alphabet
Declina nd fall of Byzantine
attacks by germanic tribes, decline after justinians death, gremans took most of italy, Arabs- Islam was new religion and they wanted to spread it and get wealthy, then only greek territory,venice-help trading priveledges lost and weakened, Seljuck turks, $th crusadeLatin Christian state, Ottoman and Turks
battle at Manzikert
defeat of byzantines by Seljuck turks
4th Crusade
Seljuck turks attack, Byzantine emperoro asks pope for help, send out people, attack and sack constantinopl, Pope Inoccent III, public condemed and excommunicated, then Latin christain state took over
Siege of Constantinople
defeat by Ottoman and Turks,lasted 6t weeks and then attacked by cannon
part of Persian empire, northeast of Byzantine, King tiridates III, 1st official christian country, Battle of Avarair- succesful deafeat of persia, invaded by arabs the both turks, split b/w russia and Ottoman
2 kingdoms: Colchis and Iberia,under Roman rule, Silk Road, Christianity under Neno, attacked by Persia and Byzantine, goldern age under queen Tamara, turned into Russia
Balkan pen. Russian empire, first state, King Simon I- peak, fell to Ottomons
slavic, Balkan pen. Serbs- accepted east orthodox, formed a state, Stefan Duscan- emperor expanded rule, defeated by Otts at battle of Kosovo
one of hte largest groups, borrowed culture of Byzantines, Russia- far norht and East , cmae from poland or famrers from black sea
3 main rivers (russia)
Dnieper, Don, Volga
plains, forests, rivers, good soil, bad climate, no farmings, far inland, norht black sea
west slavs
lived in marshlands, fought germans, Roman Catholic religion and West European culture
South Slavs
Balkan Peninsula, influenced by Orthodox and Roman Catholic, contact with Byz., Bosinians- islamic
East Slavs
largest group, not warlike, Russians, Norht Black sea, villages of related fams, log homes, artisans- woodwork
helped protect slavs, set up government, from scandanavia,
primary chronicle
records of vikings, east slavic history,
asked to be king of eastern slavs, established capital at Novgorod, area called Rus,
Prince Oleg
conquered kiev, new region Kieven Rus, ruled by Grand Prince
south, dnieper river trade route, on high bluff, mother of east slavice cities, raided Constantinople, attracted to wealth, treaties, sperated from West Europe when chruch split
areas ruled by princes, self- governemnt, tribute to Grnad prince, princes- admin. justice and defend frontiers
wealthy merchants and farmers who assist prince, represent free male citizens, power to accept and remove princes
3 institutions
princely office, council, and assembly
religion (russian)
polythestic at first, nature dieties- Pernen and Great Mother, later East Orthodox
Princess Olga
1st noble to accept Christian faith
adopted christianity, public baptism in dnieper river, cyrillic alphabet, established schools, churches and monestaries, warrioer and expander, captured islandasin poland
encouraged learning and established 1st library, organized legal system, arranged marriages and alliances, after death split empire b/w sons and ther wer no sucession laws
Decline of Kiev
figthing b/w sons of Yaroslav, trafde interuppted by Latin Christian State, attacked by Mongols
defeated and conquered by most of country, sacked towns and villages, heavy taxes, allowed christiatniyt so long as allegiance to them, isolated slavs, people moved to Novgorod
no mongols- river was swamp, attacks by swedes and germans
Alexander Nevsky
Battle of Neva River- defeated swedes, Battle of Ice- tuetonic knights
ruler of Moscow, war and diplomatic marriagres
leader of the Orthodox church, transfered to Moscow
Prince Ivan I
money bags, helped stop attack agaisnt mongols, tax collector
Battle of Kulikovo
muscovit defeat of mongols
Ivan III
moscow refuse to pay taxes to mongols, Ivan the Great, bring many principalities under his rule, Moscow alone center of orthodox church title of tsar, 2 headed eagle symbol, soverign of Russia, stressed obedience to tsar