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126 Cards in this Set

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archaic period
the period roughly between 8000 and 1500 B.C., during which time Native Americans adapted to a changed continental climate, developed larger communities, and, in several regions, adopted agriculture
aztecs
a warrior people who dominated the Valley of Mexic from 1100-1521
cahokia
one of the largest urban centers created by Mississippian peoples, containing 30,000 residents in 1250.
columbian exchange
The transatlantic exchange of plants, animals, and diseases that occured after the first European contact with the Americas.
culture areas
Geographical regions inhabited by peoples who share similar basic patterns of subsistence and social organization
great league of peace and power
spiritual union of five Iroguois nations that aimed to maintain peace among them and unite them to fight against common enemies.
predestination
the belief that God decided at the moment of Creation which humans would achieve salvation.
protestants
all European supporters of religious reform under Charles V's Holy Roman Empire.
reconquista
the long struggle during which spanish christians reconquered the Iberian peninsula from Muslim occupiers.
reformation
Martin Luther's challenge to the Catholic Church, initiated in 1517, calling for a return to what he understood to be the purer practices and beliefs of the early church.
songhai empire
A powerful West African state that flourishe between 1450 and 1591, when it fell to a Moroccan invasion.
treaty of tordesillas
treaty negotiated in 1494 to resolve the territorial claims of Spain and Portugal.
courers de bois
french for "woods runner," an independent fur trader in New France.
indentured servants
individuals who contracted to serve a master for a period of four to seven years in return for payment of the servant's passage to America.
joint-stock company
business enterprise in which a group of stockholders pooled their money to engage in trade or to fund colonizing expeditions.
headright system
instituted by the virgina company in 1616, this system gave fifty acres to anyone who paid his own way to Virginia and an additional fifty for each person (or "head") he brought with him.
house of burgesses
the legislature of colonial Virginia. First organized in 1619, it was the first institution of representative government in the English colonies.
proprietary colony
a colony created when the English monarch granted a huge tract of land to an individual or group of individuals, who became "lords proprietor."
puritans
individuals who believed that Queen Elizabeth's reforms of the Church of England had not gone far enough in improving the church. Puritans led the settlement of Massachusetts Bay Colony.
act for religious toleration
the first law in America to call for freedom of worship for all Christians.
Anglican
of a belonging to the Church of England, a Protestant denomination
separatists
Members of an offshoot branch of Puritanism. Separatists believed that the Church of England was too corrupt to be reformed and hence were convinced they must "separate" from it to save their souls.
pilgrims
settlers of Plymouth colony, who viewed themselves as spiritual wonderers.
covenant
a contract with God, binding settlers to meet their religious obligations in return for God's favor.
Pequot War
conflict between English settlers and Pequot Indians over control of land and trade in eastern Conneticut.
Slave Codes
A series of laws passed mainly in the southern colonies in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries to define the status of slaves and codify the denial of basic civil rights to them.
Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina
A complex plan for organizing the colony of Carolina, drafted in 1669 by Anthony Ashley Copper and John Locke.
Quakers
Members of the Society of Friends, a radical religious group that arose in the mid-seventeenth century. Quakers rejected formal theology, focusing instead on the Holy Spirit that dwelt within them.
Frame of Government
William Penn's constitution for Pennsylvania which included a provision allowing for religious freedom.
Encomienda
In the Spanish colonies, the grant to a Spanish Settler of a certain number of Indian subjects, who would pay him tribute in goods and labor.
repartimiento
In the Spanish colonies, the assignment of Indian workers to labor on public works projects.
Beaver Wars
Series of bloody conflicts, occuring between 1640s and 1680s, during which the Iroquois fought the Hurrons and Franch for control of the fur trade in the east and the Great Lakes region.
King William's War
The first Anglo-Frence conflict in North America, the American phaso of Europe's War of the League of Augsburd. Eneded in negotiated peace that reestablished the balance of power.
Bacon's Rebellion
Violent conflict in Virginia, beginning with settler attacks on Indians but culminating in a rebellion led by Nathaniel Bacon against Virginia's government.
Pueblo Revolt
Rebellion in 1680 of Pueblo Indians in New Mexico against their Spanish overlords, sparked by religious conflict and excessive Spanish demands for tribute.
Middle Passage
The voyage between West Africa and the New World slave colonies.
Stono Rebellion
Uprising in 1739 of South Carolina slaves against whites; inspired in part by Spanish officials' promist of freedom for American slaves who escaped to Florida.
Redemptioner
Similar to an indentured servant, except that a redemptioner signed a labor contract in America rather than in Europe.
Mercantillism
Economic system whereby the government intervenes in the economy for the purpose of increasing national wealth.
Enumerated products
Items produced in the colonies and enumerated in acts of Parliament that could be legally shipped from the colony of origin only to specified locations.
Age of Enlightenment
Major intellectual movement occuring in Western Europe in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.
Halfway Covenant
Plan adopted in 1662 by New England clergy to deal with problem of declining church membership, allowing children of baptized parents to be baptized whether or not their parents had experienced conversion.
Great Awakening
Tremendous religious revival in colonial America striking first in the middle Colonies and New England in the 1740s and then spreading to the southern colonies.
New Lights
People who experienced conversion during the revivals of the Great Awakening.
Dominion of New England
James II's failed plan of 1686 to combine eight northern colonies into a single large province, to be governed by a royal appointee with no elective assembly.
Glorious Revolution
Bloodless revolt that occurred in England in 1688 when parliamentary leaders invited William of Orange, a Protestant, to assume the English throne.
Virtual representation
The notion that parliamentary members represented the interests of the nation as a whole, not those of the particular district that elected them.
Actual representation
the pratice whereby elected representatives normally reside in their districts and are directly responsive to local interests.
King William's War
The first Anglo-French conflict in North America, the American phase of Europe's War of the League of Augsburg.
Queen Anne's War
American phase of Europe's War of the Spanish Succession.
Country Ideology
Train of thought (focusing on the threat to personal liberty and the taxation of property holders) first appearing in England in the late seventeenth century in response to the growth of governmental power and a national debt.
Grand Settlement of 1701
Separate peace treaties negotiated by Iroquois diplomats at Montreal and Albany that marked the beginning of Iroquois neutrality in conflicts between the French and the British in North America
King George's War
The third Anglo-French war in North America, part of the European conflict known as the War of the Austrian Succession.
Treaty of Lancaster
Negotiation in 1744 whereby Iroquois chiefs sold Virginia land speculators the right to trade at the Forks of the Ohio.
Albany Plan of Union
Plan put forward in 1754 calling for an intercolonial union to manage defense and Indian affairs. The plan was rejected by participants at the Albany Congress.
French and Indian War
The last of the Anglo-French colonial wars and the first in which the fighting began in North America. The war ended with France's defeat.
Treaty of Paris
The formal end to British hostilities against France and Spain in February 1763.
The Earliest Americans (r)
- Paleo-Indians were resourceful hunters.
- During the Archaic period Indians adapted to regional environments.
- Farming began near the end of the Archaic period.
Mesoamerica (r)
- Mesoamerica was the birthplace of agriculture in North America.
- Olmecs were the first literate urban culture in the region.
- Mayan civilization reached its height between A.D. 150 and 900.
West African Society (r)
- West Africans were skilled artisans and metalworkers.
- Most West Africans were farmers.
- Most West African clans were patrillineal (tracing down through the men).
European Society (r)
- European states were hierarchical.
- Most Europeans were peasant farmers.
- European society was patriarchal.
Religious Conflict in Europe (r)
- 1517: Martin Luther sparks reformation
- John Calvin promotes a more radical vision of Pretestantism.
- The Catholic Church launches a "Counter Reformation."
Discovery and Exploration (r)
- Europeans sought access to Asian spices.
- Technological innovations made longer sea voyages possible.
- State sponsorship funded voyages of exploration.
Christopher Columbus (r)
- Most Europeans knew the earth was round.
- Columbus convinced the Spanish monatchs to support his voyage.
- Columbus died in 1506 still believing he had found Asia.
Sources of Misunderstanding and Mistrust (r)
- Technology
- Religion
- Gender
- Social Organization
Roanoke (r)
- 1578: Gilbert receives permission to set up a colony
- 1585: Raleigh sends men to build a settlement on Roanoke Island.
- 1587: Raleigh sends a second expedition led by White.
- 1590: White returns to find Roanoke deserted.
The Fur Trade (r)
- Fur traders were critical to New France's success.
- New France was ruled by royal apointees.
- Coureurs de bois: independent fur traders living among the Indians.
New France Under Royal Control (r)
- 1663: King Lous XIV assumes direct control of the colony.
- French officials launch campaign to increase immigration.
- Campaign fails and population is only 15,000 in 1700.
Powhatan, Indian Leader (r)
- Chief of a confederacy of about thirty tribes.
- Besieged Jamestown when colonists began stealing corn.
- Father of Pocahontas.
Tobacco (r)
- 1617: Virginia-grown tobacco arrives in England.
- 1669: tobacco exports reach 15 million pounds annually.
- A large labor force: key to tobacco farming.
The Pilgrims (r)
- Plymouth colony founded in 1620.
- Pilgrims were separatists who believed the Church of England could not be reformed.
Mayflower Compact (r)
- Mayflower Compact signed in 1620.
- Established self-government in the Plymouth colony.
- Pilgrim leaders urged all adult males to sign the compact.
Anne Hutchinson (r)
- Arrived in Boston with her family in 1634.
- Began to hold religious meetings in her house.
- Found guilty of sedition and banished from Massachussetts.
Childhood in New England (r)
- Children went to work shortly after their fifth birthday.
- Around age 10 children began doing more complex work.
- Many early teens performed work similar to that of adults.
Slave Codes (r)
- Slavery was a lifelong condition that passed from parents to children.
- Slaves had no legal rights.
- Masters were all but exempt from prosecution for mistreatment of slaves.
- Slaves were subject to punishment at the discretion of masters.
Rice and slavery (r)
- 1690s: Rice introduced in Carolina.
- 1708: Black slaves outnumber white settlers.
- 1730s: Blacks outnumber whites two to one.
French-Indian Trade: The Costs for Indians (r)
- disease
- dependence on European technology
- increased violence and warfare
Native Americans and English Settlers (r)
- Influx of settlers exposed native peoples to disease.
- Settler's desire for land led to violence between settlers and Indians.
- By 1650 settlers outnumbered Indians in some areas.
Conversion (r)
- Missionaries convinced many Indians to accept baptism.
- Many Indians did not understand the implications of baptism.
- Converts blended Christianity and native religion.
King Phillip's War (r)
- King Phillip's War broke out in 1675.
- Conflict between Wampanoags and settlers led to war.
- Thousands of settlers and Indians died in the fighting.
The Demand for Labor (r)
- Indians forced into slavery in the Americas.
- By 1700 Indian slave trade replaced by slaves from Africa.
- Over time slaves replaced servants on tobacco plantations.
Growth of Slavery (r)
- Slavery grew rapidly in the South.
- The use of slaves made economic sense on tobacco and rice plantations.
- Northern slaves worked as servants, craftsmen, and day laborers.
Creolee Slaves (r)
- Slaves born in America, not Africa
- Lived longer and had more children that African-born slaves.
- Played key role in the development of African American Identity
Slave society (r)
- Traces of African culture remained in slave society.
- Labor consumed most of slave's time.
- Growth of slave families and communities inhibited escape and rebellion.
Child Labor in New England (r)
- Children began work as young as 5 or 6.
- Teenagers took on adult tasks.
- Fathers used ownership of property to tie sons to land.
British Trade Policy (r)
- All trade in empire to be conducted in English or on colonial ships.
- Colonial trade to be channelled through England or another English colony.
- Subsidiation of English goods offered for sale in the colonies.
- Colonists prohibited from large-scale manufacture of certain products.
Colonial Exports (r)
- Chesapeake colonies: tobacco
- South Carolina: rice and indigo.
- Middle Colonies: Wheat
Poverty in the Colonies (r)
- Gap between rich and poor widened in the 18th century.
- Most cities had workhouses or shelters.
- Much smaller percentage of population depended on public assistance in the colonies than in England.
Enlightment thought (r)
- Inspired by scientific advances.
- Emphasis on the power of reason to improve human life.
- Assigned God a less active role in human affairs.
Glorious Revolution (r)
- 1688: James II forced from throne in bloodless coup.
- Massachusetts receives new charter.
- Broad support for Glorious Revolution throughout colonies.
Population growth (r)
- 1700: 265,000 black and white settlers in the mainland colonies.
- 1760: 1.5 million black and white settlers in the mainland colonies.
- Population growth due to natural increase in immigration.
William Pitt's Policies (r)
- Reimbursements to the colonies in proportion to their contribution.
- De-emphasis of the power of the commander in chief.
- More British troops to fight alongside colonial troops.
Paleo-Indians (r)
- earliest americans.
- traveled in small bands, tracking and killing mammoths, bison, and other large game using spears.
- overhunting caused mammoths and other large game to become extinct.
- climatic change also hestened the animals' disappearance.
Mayans (r)
- The Maya were a Mesoamerican civilization.
- Most advanced writing system.
- lived in what is now known as southern Mexico and northern Central America.
Jamestown (r)
- In 1607, 104 English men and boys began a settlement on the banks of Virginia's James River.
- They were sponsored by the Virginia Company of London, whose stockholders hoped to make a profit from the resources of the New World.
- The community suffered terrible hardships in its early years, but managed to endure.
- Earning the distinction of being America's first permanent English colony.
John Smith (r)
- John Smith became leader of the colonists and did his best to fight off the Indians.
- Smith was questioned about his colony and then made to take part in some sort of ritual or trial, after which, in keeping with an Indian custom, he was made a subordinate chief in the tribe.
- Smith convinced afterward that Pocahontas had saved his life.
- Meanwhile, dissent within the colony fermented due to laziness, lack of supplies, and periodic attempts at desertion by many of the colonists. Personal conflicts among Smith and various leaders, as well as disagreements over new policies being formulated in London, added to the discontent.
- As a result, Smith left Jamestown and went to London never to return.
Pocahontas (r)
- In 1613 she was kidnapped by Captain Samuel Argall and held at the fort for a year as a bargaining chip in dealings with her father. In captivity she was baptized and christened Rebecca.
- In 1614 married John Rolfe, with whom she had a son, Thomas.
- In 1616 she was among a group of Algonquian Indians taken to London as part of a plan to popularize Jamestown; she was presented to King James I and made a good impression on the royal family and high society.
- After seven months in England, Rolfe decided take his family back to Virginia and set sail in March of 1617.
- Pocahontas immediately became gravely ill and died.
John Rolfe (r)
- his experiments with tobacco cultivation produced the first export crop and built the colony's economy (virginia.)
- married to Pocahontas
George Calvert / Maryland (r)
- Allow resettlement of persecuted catholics to the New World.
- Profitable crop = tobacco
- reglious persecution in maryland
- acts of toleration = religious toleration for catholics and protestants. problem: also called for death penalty to all jews or any non-christian.
- white indentured servitude
William Bradford / Plymouth
- was an English leader of the Separatist settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts
- elected to be the Governor after John Carver died.
- He was the second signer and primary architect of the Mayflower Compact.
- The Plymouth economy developed around trade in fish and furs. The sandy and rocky soil had made agriculture difficult, but basic crops were grown successfully.
- Plymouth was never a prosperous settlement, but the religiously faithful were content to be ignored by English officials and left to direct their own affairs
Virgina Stock Company
- English trading company chartered by James I in 1606 to colonize the eastern coast of North America.
- Its shareholders were residents of London.
- Approximately 105 colonists in three ships reached Virginia in 1607 and founded Jamestown.
- The company expanded its territory with new charters (1609, 1612) and authorized a two-house legislature (1619), including a House of Burgesses.
- The colony survived many hardships, but the company was divided by internecine disputes and was dissolved in 1624, whereupon Virginia became a royal colony.
Protestant Reformation (r)
- aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church by Martin Luther.
vikings (r)
- viking voyagers from scandinavia.
- between the 9th and 11th century, magnificent ships carried the vikings over vast distances, from the northernmost reaches of Norway to continental Europe, and westward to Iceland, Greenland, and Canada.
- violent raids that brought widespread destruction to local populations.
- In the New World, trade and settlement were the Viking's main goals.
vasco de gama
- Portugese explorer who opened up sea route to India.
Hernan Cortes
- Hernán Cortés was a Spanish explorer who is famous mainly for his march across Mexico and his conquering of the Aztec Empire in Mexico.
Jacques Cartier (r)
- In 1534 he was appointed by Francis I to explore North America, in an attempt to find a passage to the Pacific Ocean.
- On his first voyage he reached Newfoundland in 20 days, sighted the Magdalen Islands and Prince Edward Island (which he thought was the mainland) and found the St. Lawrence River.
- He made a second voyage in 1535 and explored the St. Lawrence up to what is now Montreal.
- On his third voyage (1541), Cartier was under the command of Jean-Francois de la Rocque de Roberval and part of an unsuccessful attempt to colonize the area.
John Calvin (r)
- Geneva-based leader of the Protestant Reformation.
- Calvin's is the most famous presentation of the much debated doctrine of predestination: that God decided, before creating the world, who will and will not be saved.
Martin Luther (r)
- first to translate the new testament in German.
- whose belief in his faith would overthrow the all-powerful Catholic Church and reshape Medieval Europe.
Sir Walter Raleigh
- Sponsored the first colony to the Americas. (Colony of Roanoke, lost colony)
- Organized expeditions to the new world and popularized tobacco.
- James I kept Sir Walter imprisoned in the Tower of London for years and finally had him beheaded in 1618.
Samuel de Champlain / Quebec (r)
- He made several expeditions to North America before founding Quebec in 1608 with 32 colonists, most of whom did not survive the first winter.
- He joined with the northern Indian tribes to defeat Iroquois marauders and promoted the fur trade with the Indians.
- He discovered Lake Champlain in 1609 and made other explorations of what are now northern New York, the Ottawa River, and the eastern Great Lakes.
- English privateers besieged Quebec in 1628, when England and France were at war, and he was taken prisoner.
- In 1632 the colony was restored to France, and in 1633 Champlain made his last voyage to Quebec, where he lived until his death.
Edict of Nantes (r)
- Law promulgated by Henry IV of France to grant religious liberty and full civil rights to the Protestant Huguenots.
- It stipulated that Protestant pastors were to be paid by the state, and public worship was permitted in most of the kingdom, though not in Paris.
- It also restored Catholicism in all areas where Catholic practice had been interrupted by the Wars of Religion.
- The edict was resented by the Catholic clergy; Cardinal de Richelieu annulled its political clauses in 1629, and the full edict was revoked by Louis XIV in 1685.
john winthrop / mass. bay (r)
- In 1629 he joined the Massachusetts Bay Co., and he was elected governor of the colony that was to be established by the company in New England.
- A Puritan, he envisioned a colony based on his religious beliefs.
- He guided the colonists on his arrival in North America in 1630 and was elected governor 12 times during the period from 1631 to 1648.
- Though widely respected, he was criticized for opposing the formation of a representative assembly (1634), and the colony's limitations on religious freedom were decried by Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson.
Roger Williams / Rhode Island (r)
- English clergyman, colonist, and founder of Rhode Island
James Oglethorpe (r)
- comes from long line of philanthropists with humanitarian qualities who believe in helping.
- wants also to set up colony for poor people.
- religious freesomg and toleration
-establishes council and recruits people around Europe and possesses some christianity giving people a place for free land.
- creates a lot of diversity.
- doesn't last. oglethorpe dies and georgia collapse into like prison colony with slaves.
William Penn / Quakers (r)
- last colony established.
- founded to allow quakers to practice religious freedom.
George Whitefield
The first of his seven trips to America was made in 1738, when he spent a short time in Georgia in the mission post vacated by John Wesley. He returned to England to seek funds for an orphanage in Georgia and to take orders as an Anglican priest, but his connection with the Wesleys and the evangelical character of his preaching led to his exclusion from most of the pulpits of the Church of England. He then began a series of open-air meetings in Bristol and elsewhere, to which huge audiences were attracted. He persuaded John Wesley to carry on the work while he again visited (1739-41) America; there he was an influential figure in the Great Awakening, preaching to congregations in the large settlements from Georgia to New England.
Dutch East India Co. (r)
- Trading company founded by the Dutch in 1602 to protect their trade in the Indian Ocean and to assist in their war of independence from Spain.
General Braddock (r)
British army commander in the French and Indian War. After service in Europe, he arrived in Virginia in 1755 to command British forces in North America against the French. He undertook an expedition to attack the French-held Fort Duquesne (now Pittsburgh, Pa.); his force, which included British regulars and provincial militiamen such as George Washington, cut the first road across the Allegheny Mountains and reached a point on the Monongahela River near the fort. There his army of over 1,400 men was ambushed and defeated by a group of 254 French and 600 Indians, and he was mortally wounded in the ensuing rout.
General Amherst
- Jeffrey Amherst was a prime contributor to the British victory over the French in Canada in the French and Indian War
William Pitt (r)
- He was appointed prime minister in 1783 and undertook reforms that reduced the large national debt incurred by the American Revolution, reduced tariffs, placed the East India Co. under government control, and restructured the government in India.
General Wolfe
- 1758 he helped lead Gen. Jeffery Amherst's successful expedition against the French on Cape Breton Island. In 1759 he was appointed commander of the British army on its mission to capture Quebec from the French. In the ensuing Battle of Quebec, he defeated the French in a battle lasting less than an hour.
General Montcalm
- In 1756, he assumed command of French forces.
- In his first battle, the successful siege of Fort Oswego, New York, Montcalm was horrified by the behavior of his Indian allies, who killed wounded prisoners, took personal captives, and collected scalps as trophies.
- He came to regard the Indians -so essential to the defense of New France- as savages.
- Following his next victory, the capture of Fort William Henry, NY, Montcalm conformed to European practice by allowing the defeated garrison to go home in return for the promise not to fight again.
Massacre of Fort William Henry
Feeling betrayed by their French allies, the Indians took captives and trophies anyway when they had agreed not to. This action not only outraged the New England colonies but also alienated the Indians on whome the defense of Canada depended.
Ohio River Valley (r)
- The river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley.
- After European-American settlement, the river served at times as a border between present-day Kentucky and Indian Territories. It was a primary transportation route during the westward expansion of the early U.S.
- During the 19th century, the river was the southern boundary of the Northwest Territory, thus serving as the border between free and slave territory.
Battle of Quebec (r)
- The Battle of Quebec was an attempt on December 31, 1775, by American colonial forces to capture the city of Quebec, drive the British military from the Province of Quebec, and enlist French Canadian support for the American Revolutionary War.
- This was the first defeat suffered by the Continental Army. The Americans suffered a significant number of important casualties, on top of Montgomery's death.
Chief Pontiac (r)
- A great leader of the Ottawa Indian tribe. He organized his and other tribes in the Great Lakes area to fight the British, in what is known as Pontiac's War.