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15 Cards in this Set

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Legacy of the Roman Empire
1. centralized government with an adminstrative goernment to support it
2. Army for conquering and defense
3. Technological Advances:
aquedutes, roads, builids
4. Imperial Economy: trade, argiculture and wealthy Empire
5. Literary tradition:
Tulus, Ovid, etc..., political, poetic, technical, historical, philosophical (Greek) literature
6. 2 class society:
aristocracy (government officials + wealthy) and mass population (peasants + poor)
Spread of Christianity and Historical/Religious Sources
1. Jesus
2. Peter
3. Paul
4. Gospels- Mattew, Mark, Luke, John, accounts of the life and sayings of Jesus, 60's-90's
5. Oral tradition: letters and Gospels are 60 years after the event so the imformation is passed/lost by oral tradition - the exact sayings of Jesus's life and what they mean are in doubt- this had been the case since the beginning of religion
6. By the year 100, many more Jesus followers. Paul decides to be a memember of Christianity you do not have to be a Jew although Peter disputed this.
7. The faith was helped spread by the Roman Empire because there were roads and bridges and trade routes
Establishment of Christianity
1. Scripture - Bible
2. Creeds
3.Structure within the Church
-bishops (in 100 there are arguments of the power of the bishop already)
-bishops became known as Papa Pope (Roman term) to recognize their authority
-bishop of Rome by mid 4th century, Leo I, thought that the bishop of Rome should have more authority than the rest and was considered a Pope
- abbot (heads a monastery is equal to a bishops
hierarchy: Pope Leo I by mid 4th Century -> bishops -> priest -> people
4. Official Recognition
Gnosticism
broad not perticulary Christian; gnosts as in knowledge/wisdom claimed to have a special spiritual knowledge, believed that good(spiritual goal: to escape the body and become spiritual) and evil (matter) are seperate
Christ is material (this is not possible for gnostics)- contradicts Christian beliefs b/c Christians must maintain the belief that Christ was man(material)
raises question about the nature of the world and Christ
Arianism
Christ could not have been equal to God
questions the nature of Christ
Nicene Creed of 325 is written to explain Arianism
Arias is the individual
Donatism
Donatus is the individual
after percution of North African Christians priest fleed and renounced beliefs
-> priest resumed their old positions
Donatus argued that their failures as priests underminded any sacrifices they performed -made them invalid - the church thought that the condition of teh priest did not matter b/c the sacrifice came from God
questions the state of the clergy
Pelagianism
the individual is Pelagis
-Saint Augustine wrote that man had no free will
- this religion says that man had the will to do/make the choice to do good and evil- man is able to affect his ultimate salvation
-the church believes that man's destiny has already been decided by God
-questions teh nature of man and his ability to have say in his salvation
Circumstances leading to Charlemagne's Empire/Carolingian Empire
1. expansion of the Muslims -> pressure on the Eastern Empire, closing off of Mediterranean, stopped at Toir in 732
2. Byzantine / Eastern Roman Empire becoming stagnant
3. Papacy in response to the decline of power is looking for support from the King of the Franks
4. Emergence of Carolingian line
Byzantine Empire
-what is left of the Roman Empire
-8th Century is occupied with crisis over icons- developed as a common form of venerated pictures of saints -> church turns away from them - then the empire goes back to the exceptance of icons - Church is upset and papacy get stronger motive to break away.
Jesus
a Jew who dies about 29 and was born 3-5 years before the common era, crucified/exicutioned by Romans, after his death stories circulate of him being divine
Peter
a prinicipal follower of Jesus
at Jesus's death
Paul
dies circa 67
not part of the group around Jesus
persecuted Jesus followers in the beginning and then converts and becomes a follower of Jesus amd writes a number of the books of the New Testement
Scripture / Bible
- the New Testement (Gospels and letters (Paul))
-the Old Testement (Hebrew Scripture/Torah)- came before the New Testement events, contains the writing that define Jewdism, both refer to the same god, OT is before the life of Jesus, NT is after the life of Jesus, about creation (Genesis)and Adam and Eve
New Testement is a fulfillment of the promises of the OT.
2nd century: canon of books that are considered divine and truthful of Christanity
mid 4th century: able to talk about the official books of the Bible (OT is well defined)
Nicene Creeds
Nicene Creed written in 325 by a consul of the church b/c there were questions about God and how there are God, father, Jesus Christ and the holy spirit (Christians are monotheistic-here there are 3 people), the chruch is universal (Catholic - universal; the faith of all people- everyone should be a Christian)
the faith must be defined by Creeds because there is a lot of contradicting ideas.
Official Recognition of Christianity
- Emperor Consantine converted to Christianity in 321 - ends percutions and leads to governmental support
-340: Emperor Thodoseus makes Christianity official religion of Rome
- end of 4th Century it is difficult not to be a Christian - suported religion by the Empire and Emperor
- period of Thodoseus raised a question: circa 390 he response to rebel activity by calling people together in an areana for a spectacule, but he kills them all -> Theodoses is cut off the church until he can confess to his wrong acions -> he does eventually confess -> displays the struggle for power b/t the Emperor and the Pope (relgious leaders) -> question of whose power is stronger?
Heresy: 1. Gnosticism, Arianism, Donatism, Relasiumism