Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Summarize the events of the breaking up of Charlemagne's empire in the years after his death and identify which group increasingly gained power in the eighth and ninth centuries.
In 817, Louis the Pious created the Arrangement of the Empire. In 843, the Treay of Verdun was created. Older scholars believe that the break up was caused by these wars. However, modern scholars believe that the conspiracies and revolts of the magnates caused it. The magnates who gained power because in 821 the were pardoned of their sins, made revolts and conspiracies that weakened the kingdom and caused civil war. Charles the Bald attempted to prevent Carloman from his participation in his kingdom by placing him in the church, leading to his revolt. Counts were not hereditary, leading the aquistion of wealth and power by many magnates. Some magnates held so much power that they were able to resist the king. Charles the Bald attempted to gain support by granting gifts of land and other powers. However, this weakened his authority. Because the defense means of Charlemagne was ignored and the disorder within the kingom, three invaders attacks.
Summarize the growth of feudalism within the Carolingian Empire
Origin: the need for retainers
The retainer or vassal was tied to the lord in a relationship that gave land and protection in return for miltiary service. The retainers were not part of the noble class because only men who participated in the government were noble. The noble class was comprised of a small group of counts until the 11th century. Counts descended from the Frankish aristocracy made up the second level of feudalism. In the eighth and ninth centuries, the weakening power of the Empire increased the power of the regional authorities. The Viking invasions weakened the central government because since they were helpless, the local people turned to the local authories, who therefore gained power. During the ninth and tenth centuries the local authorities bascially governed independently.
Describe manorialism
had to do with the services and obligations of the peasant class.
The economic power of the warring class was based on estates, therfore feudalism and manorialism were closely related. The peasants needed protection. So, the sought it from the lords who demanded labor and a portion of the harvest in return for safety and land on the manor. The peasants became serfs and part of the lord's labor force. They lost status in becoming serfs because they were tied to the manor, but could not be sold.
Indentify the three groups of invaders and their actions
the Vikings of Scandinavia:
looted, burned, attacked from the north, seized magnates and held them for payoff. They took advantage of Carolingian conflict. They were excelent seamen and took advantage of the lack of Carolingian navy.
The Magyars, Asiatic nomads: circa 890, Magyar tribes (Hungarians) were pushed westward during the time when Viking invasions were still occurring. The Magyar put northern Italy under their control, forced some regions to pay tribute and seized plunder. The Magyars also attacked villages and monasteries and took prisoners and sold them on the Eastern slave market. The Magyars were about plunder not colonization.
The Muslims from the Mediterranean:
attacked the peninsulae of Italy and Spain. Their attacks were less dangerous because compared to the wealthy Arab capitals, northern Europe had little to offer.
What were the effects of these invasions on European society?
increased break up of political power
increased power of local authorities
peasants became serfs
influenced cultures; Vikings left the positive influence of their seamanship.
Areas settled by the Vikings prospered from trade.
Louis the Pious
ruled 814-840
Charlemagne's only surviving son
inherited the empire
Arrangement of the Empire
Louis the Pious divided his territories among his three sons and stressed unity
leads to fights over land and imperial title
Treaty of Verdun
an agreement among the sons of Louis the Pious on the division of the empire and the imperial title was given to Lothar.
ends civil wars
Charles the Bald
mid 9th century
One of Louis the Pious's sons. He attempted to work around Carloman in his kingdom by putting him in the church.
leads to later fights which weakened the kingdom
9th century
A retainer which military obligations to a lord in return for land and protection
9th century
Peasant who entered a relationship with a lord that called for labor and a portion of the harvest in return for safety and land on the manor.
9th century
the word Viking dervived from this word which means creek because Vikings waited up creek and paddled down creek to attack
The Vikings invaded and conquered part of northwestern France and called it Norsemanland, which Normandy derives from.
late 9th century
Slaves which the Vikings took from the British Isles or territories along the Baltic Sea which were sold on the Eastern Slave market because of the huge Muslim demand for slaves.
late 9th century, early 10th century
The northeastern and central parts of England settled by the Vikings in which Danish law and customs were practiced as opposed to English law and customs.