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97 Cards in this Set

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what are the seven catagories that aritfacts can be classified as?
environmental, economic, social, political, religious, cultural, intellectual
what were some economic changes at the beginning of village and town life?
agriculture, advanced technology- plow, loom, wheel,- metal working, calnders, irrigation, animal domesticaiton
what were some social changes in the beginning of town and village life?
protection, religion, dependant on weather, leaders, job diversity, competition
what were some of the social changes during the rise of civilaizations?
specialized labor, complex government, more control, social classes, imporved skills, soldiers, priests, myths, written language, cultural diffusion
what were some of the social changes during the rise of civilaizations?
specialized labor, complex government, more control, social classes, imporved skills, soldiers, priests, myths, written language, cultural diffusion
what were some of the social changes during the rise of civilaizations?
specialized labor, complex government, more control, social classes, imporved skills, soldiers, priests, myths, written language, cultural diffusion
what were some of the social changes during the rise of civilaizations?
specialized labor, complex government, more control, social classes, imporved skills, soldiers, priests, myths, written language, cultural diffusion
what were some of the social changes during the rise of civilaizations?
specialized labor, complex government, more control, social classes, imporved skills, soldiers, priests, myths, written language, cultural diffusion
What were some of the econmic changes during the rise of civilizations?
small canals and reservoirs, Bronze, record keeping, long distance trade, surplus food, dams, jewelry
What was Ur?
an ancient civilization in ancient mesopetamia
what is cunieform?
a sumerian anciet writing that used wedge shape imprints for letters and words
what is a ziggurat?
an ancient temple in the center of all cities that looks like a flat topped pyramid
What was Pont' de Chauvet, who discovered it and why was it important?
it was a cave found by JEan-MArie Chauvet. it had prehisotric cave paintings in it that wer unusual because they were of other dangerous animals rather than thetypical ones that wer traditionally found in cavepaintings
what was the first picture the explores found in chavet Pont D'?
it was a mamoth that was painted in red ochre and it was found on a rocky spur hanging from the ceiling
what was the first step that the explpores of CPD took to try and protect it?
they covered their footpirnts with plastic and designated a specific path to walk on
How did they determine the cave paintings in CPD were authentic?
parts of the lines wer eroded meaning that they had been ther a long time and also there was many cave bear bones and other animal bones covered with calcite.
What are some of the things the french government is doing to try and protect CPD?
they have put on a solid door, ther are only letting authorized people in, when people go in they have to wear special suits and shoes, and they are regulating the temperature in the cave to minimize the damage done
what is ichnology?
branch of paleontology that studies the tracks and traces left behind in caves by human or other animals
why do they limit the amount of peopl that go into CPD?
people could accidentaly mees something up and the carbon dioxide from their breath distures the evironment that the cave has had for so long
how did prehistoric people create the painting on the wall near the entrance of the brunel chamber in CPD?
the people used their palms of their right hand to make this picture beacue of the way that the paint is on the wall
How was CPD formed?
it used ot be high sea nad then te sea wen tdown and the river eroded away at the solid croal and shels that wer left behind thus making the cave
what is the Aurigriacian period?
the part of the paleolithic era associated with homo sapiens
what materials did the aurignacian people use to make spears?
they used antler, bone and ivory- came from mamoth tusks to make the points
what is calcite?
crystals that form in caves by the evaportaion of water charged with carbohydrates
what was different about the cave paintins in CPD?
they were of more dangerous creatures such as bears, lions, and rhinos instead of the animals that were usually hunted
what were the 5 early people and in what order did they arise?
australopithecines
homo habilis
homo erectus
neanderthols
Cro- Magnons
what were the traits of australopithecines?
3.5-4 ft tall, bipedal, small brain, flat nose, large teeth- apelike
what were the achievements of the australopithecines?
lived in forests, ate fruits and nuts, aposable thumbs, walked upright
what were the traits of homo habilis?
taller than before, large/ powerful teeth, long arms, medium brain
what were the achievements of the homo habilis?
lived in trees, limited speech, nomadic, scavenged food, crude tools
what were the traits of homo erectus?
20 year life expectancy, bepedal, large teeth
what were the achievments of hom erectus?
hunted and scavenged, migrated, caves, better language, better tools, clothing, and FIRE
what were the achievments of hom erectus?
hunted and scavenged, migrated, caves, better language, better tools, clothing, and FIRE
what were the traits of neanderthals?
5.5 ft tall, thick bones, muscular, large teeth, stocky, biggest brains
what were the achievements of the neanderthals?
drainage ditches, burials, care for weaker members, free standing shelters, agriculture
what were the traits of Cro- magnons?
taller than before, less stalky and muscular, no flat nose, 30 yr life expectnacy, closest to modern day humans
what were the achievements of the cro-magnons?
knife and chisel, spears, fishing, axe, canoes, pottery, religion, better hunters, cooperation, artistry
when was the paleolithic age and what are some achievement that happened during that time?
2 million years ago - 12,000 BC. first tool making-rock and magma, food gatherers, nomads, language, clothing, FIRE
when was the neolithic period and what wer the achivemetn during that time?
8,000 - 5,000 BC. Hunters, wheel, advanced toolmaking, agriculture, religion, villages, domesticated animals jewelry
what are hominds?
the group of beings that are human beings and the humanlike creatures before them
who was lucy?
the most nearly complete skeleton of a prehuman at the time it was discovered- 40%
who found lucy?
dr. donald C. johanson
What are the 3 types of early humans?
homo habilis- person with ability
homo erectus- person who walks upright
homo sapiens- person who thinks
what is anthroplogy
the scientific study of hominids
archeologist
people who unearth and study artifacts
artifact
anything shaped or formed by human hands
what was the ice age
4 ling periods of cold climate, 2 million to 10,000 BC, below frezing temp., massive galciers, low ocean levels,
australopithacines
southern ape- early hominids- before homo- people
how did hunter/ gatherers use technology
the used fire, tools, weapons,
what type of art did neolithic people make
cave paintings, religious sculptures
what led to the neolitihic revolution
invention of axe and canoe. animals left area due to climate change, people had to find new source of food, population growing, climatic conditions appripriate for agriculture
how did agriculture develop and spread
accident and experiment- developed independantly in different places
what wer ethe cultural achievemetns of the neolithic era?
metal smelting- bronze, animal domestication, pottery, calenders, bricks for shelter, loom, textiles, worship of deities
creation myths
were develpoed to explain where people came from, talk about morality good vs evil, good triumphs over evil
sumarian creation myth
2 major gods- younger gods- kill older mother god- make earth from body
age of earth
4 billion years
age of humans
2.5 million years ago generalization
age of humans
2.5 million years ago generalization
prehistory
the era beofre written language was developed
5500 BC
written language
BC
Before christ
AD
Annon Domini (in the year of our lord)- latin
BCE
before common era= BC
CE
common era = AD
fossil
evidence of organic life preserved in rock
paleontologists
scientist that studies fossils
Mary and Louis Leaky
found a footprint of early hominid- found much eveidence of early hominids
farming development
women credited for the development
name neanderthol
named after neander valley germany
revolution
things are never the same afterwards; long lasting change
farming middle east
8000 BC- wheat and barley
China farming
5000BC rice
the ameirca's farming
3,500 BC corn and beans
diet change
before -80% meat 20% plant
after- 2%0 meat 80 % plant
trade development
surplus food- scarcity of other things- transportation advancements- trade
communities
200 people to a village, near water
religion
shirnes to god and and godesses or agriculture
bronze
copper and tin- very valuable and scarce
disadvantages to farming and village life
nomads steal stuffnatural disaters
disease
irrigation
water crops and get more grown- dams and reservoirs
charachteristics of a civilization
written language, social classes, trade center, specialized work, complex institutions, economy, government, organized religion, record keeping, advanced technology,
water travel and transportation
sail and rudder, wheel- long distance travel
lucy discovered
hadar, ethiopia
tyoe of dating for artifacts
radiocarbon dating
survival during the ice age
migration, clothing, shelter, FIRE, death
3 stone ages
paleolithic- new stone
mesolithic- middle stone
neolithic - old stone
innovations of homo erectus
beeter tools, fire, language, migration
major technological advances of homo erectus
housing- drainage ditches, free standign shelters
Catal Huyuk, Turkey
largest neolithic village
innovations of neolithic farmers
plow, wheel, irrigation systems,domestication of animals, sickle, calander, measuring systems
agricultural effect on economy
more food, greater pop, protection,trade, villiages/cities, increased job specialization, cultural diffusion
rivers wher early civilizations arose
nile river, huang he, tigris & euphrates, indus
how bronze was used
tools, jewelry- valuable
advantage to cultrural diffusion
learn from other culturs, see what they do
why government and soldiers
keep people under control and prtoect cities
city layout
zigguarts in center, nthen higher calss around that such as priests and soldiers, then on the outer bands the lower class such as the farmers
myths
used to explain the unexplained and how the peopl thought the earth was created and why they wer created