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50 Cards in this Set

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Presidential Reconstruction

When:
1863-66

Where:
DC
Who:
Lincoln / Johnson

What:
An attempt at quickly reuniting the country.

Why:
This phase addressed how secessionist
Southern states would return to the Union,
(Reconstruction vs Restoration)
and what the civil status of the leaders of
the Confederacy would be.
(Punishment vs Amnesty)
Wade-Davis Bill

When:
1864

Where:
DC
Who:
Congress: Benjamin Wade / Henry Davis

What:
A bill in passed in contrast to Lincoln's 10% plan.

Why:
It shows Congress' intent to gain power by putting themselves in charge of reconstruction & making it nearly impossible for successionist to "come back" into the union. Lincoln pocket-vetoed the bill which sparked his last public address where Lincoln stated that the states had "never left the union".
Freedman's Bureau

When:
1865

Where:
The South / DC (War Department)
Who:
Andrew Johnson (Congress/Freed Slaves)

What:
An organization to assimilate freed slaves.

Why:
It was the FIRST effort to help out the newly freed African Americans; the first effort at social welfare.
Sharecropping

When:
1870s-1890s

Where:
The South
Who:
Farmers / "Freed" Slaves

What:
Initially, an attempt at a mutually profitable labor tenancy plan

Why:
It kept "freed" slaves in a sort of pseudo-slavery with (more often than not) corrupt landlords leading them into a corrupt crop-lien system and tying them down to debt cycle. AND tremendously damaging the environment.
13th Amendment

When:
1865

Where:
The US
Who:
Lincoln/Congress/Union

What:
An amendment following the civil war

Why:
Ratification of the 13th amendment abolished slavery throughout the union.
14th Amendment

When:
1866 / 68

Where:
The US
Who:
President / Congress / States

What:
An amendment to remove all doubt of constitutionality of the Civil Rights Act

Why:
1.Reaffirms state / federal citizenship.
2. Forbids STATE to deprive any PERSON of life, liberty, or property.
3. Forbids the denial of any person, the equal protection of the law.
15th Amendment

When:
1870

Where:
The US
Who:
President / Congress / States

What:
An amendment that states were required to ratify before re-admission to the Union.

Why:
Forbids states to deny any person the right to vote on ground of color, race, or previous condition of servitude.
Jim Crow

When:
1876 - 1965

Where:
The South
Who:
White Elites
("Jim Crow": inspired by traveling entertainer)

What:
state / local laws in US

Why:
- mandated racial segregation in public places
- found their way into every area of southern life by way of the 14th Amendment "loophole" -"any STATE"… establishing "separate but equal" status for AA
KKK (ku klux klan)

When:
1866

Where:
Tennessee --> the South
Who:
racist white thugs

What: (kuklos = greek: circle / "circle of brothers")
- social club turned terrorist organization
- advocates of white supremacy & nationalism

Why:
Used intimidation tactics and violence to scare AA / White Republicans away from polls...
PBS Pinchback

When:
1872

Where:
Louisiana
Who:
AA Politician

What:
Governor

Why?
First AA Governor
First Presidential Impeachment
page 717

When:
1868

Where:
DC
Who:
Andrew Johnson

What:
Republican-Dominated House trying to get rid of Johnson

Why:
Johnson deliberately violated the "Tenure of Office Act".
(fired sec. of war Edwin Stanton) Resulting in a trial that fell 1 vote short of 2/3 majority needed to remove Johnson. Though failure to remove Johnson sucked for Radical Republican morale / support - Johnson did agree not to obstruct Reconstruction.
Mississippi Plan
page 757

When:
1890

Where:
Mississippi
Who:
MS / Black Voters

What:
Plan to revoke AA vote

Why?
Set a pattern of voting requirements,
(residency, crime conviction, taxes paid, literacy test)
that made their way to 7 other states, disqualifying a vast majority of AA vote.
Compromise of 1877
page 735

When:
1877

Where:
DC
Who:
Hayes / Tilden

What:
Confusion over electoral victory
(leading to the formation of Electoral Commission)

Why?
The Compromise: If Hayes would pull the troops out of the South, then he wins… Led to the end of Reconstruction, leaving AA to fend for themselves.
Lakota Sioux
page 771

When:
1876

Where:
Montana, Wyoming, S. Dakota, Nebraska
Who:
Sitting Bull

What:
Lakota Chief
(Sioux = French: Enemy)

Why?
Led the "Sioux"… "Great Sioux War", "Battle of Little Big Horn", etc
Georgia Armstrong Custer
page 771

When:
Starting in 1874

Where:
All around the North US
Who:
A reckless glory-seeking officer that led many attacks against the Indians and was madly in love with his wife.

What:
Lt. Colonel

Why:
- Youngest General in History
- Most successful calvary officer (7th Calvary)
- Died at Little Big Horn
Battle of Little Bighorn
page 771

When:
6 - 25 - 1876

Where:
Montana
Who:
Custer, Reno, Benteen, Natives

What:
Battle against "Savage" Indian Presence (Basically)

Why?
- Biggest victory ever for Natives
- Largest Military event post-civil war
- Custer… Died
Geronimo
page 772

When:
1886

Where:
SW US (New Mexico)
Who:
Apache Chief

What:
Captured Native American
(Apache - brutal tormentors.. "Apache don't play")

Why?
- His capture virtually ended the Indian Wars
Wounded Knee
page 773

When:
1890

Where:
S. Dakota
Who:
Lakota

What:
A bloodbath

Why?
An accidental rifle discharge led to the death of 250 natives (who had come to surrender) and 25 soldiers
Dawes Severalty Act
page 775

When:
1887

Where:
Indian Reservations
Who:
Senator Henry Dawes (MA)

What:
The fruition of "americanizing" reformation acts

Why?
An attempt to "reform" indians by making them citizens and granting them land… Destroying what was left of Native American culture
"The Significance of the Frontier in American History"
page 782

When:
1893

Where:
America
Who:
Frederick Jackson Turner

What:
"frontier thesis" - a paper delivered to the American Historical Association in

Why?
Turner claimed that the non-existence of a large area of free land to be discovered, plundered, settled, etc - marked the end of the first period of American History
Growth in Industrialization
page 786 - 796ish

When:
1870s - 1890s

Where:
America
Who:
The United States

What:
Boom of Econ, Agriculture, Industry, & Big Business in

Why?
Led to..
- 2nd Industrial Revolution
- Rise of Big Business
- Massive Labor Force
- Labor Unions:
- Regulations/Rules
Robber Barons
page 793

When:
1960s - 1900s

Where:
Chicago (Railroad) centered
Who:
Jay Gould - Cornelius Vanderbilt
Andrew Carnegie - J P Morgan
John D Rockefeller - Thomas Edison

What:
the guys in control via having most money
"captains of industry"

Why?
They were the builders and investors of American business and industry
Nancy Greene

When:
1893

Where:
Chicago World's Fair
Who:
one of first wealthy AA

What:
Famous pancake recipe writer

Why?
uhm… Aunt Jemima's Pancake syup! :)

oh, and it shows a turn of time of sorts with her being one of the first few wealthy AAs but as a woman at that.
Knights of Labor
page 809

When:
1869 - 1880s

Where:
Philadelphia
Who:
Uriah Stephens

What:
one of the first and the BIGGEST labor union
(bc anyone could join)

Why?
Endorsed reform for child labor laws, equal pay women/men, mechanics' lien laws, 8-hour work day, paper currency.
Boycotts - over strikes.
Decline after failure of railroad strike in 1886
"How the other half lives"
page 943

When:
1890

Where:
Northern Industrialized Cities
Who:
Author Jacob Riis

What:
Article written to expose NYC slum conditions

Why?
This article exposes the horrid living and working conditions (northern debt peonage = southern sharecropping)
Jane Addams / Hull House

When:
1889

Where:
Chicago
Who:
teacher of americanization

What:
"Launching Pad" for future women reformation

Why?
Established the first "settlement house" for assimilating AA… Looks a hell of a lot like Xaviers School for gifted children (xmen)
Second Mississippi Plan

When:
1890

Where:
MS
Who:
State Legislature

What:
poll tax / literacy tests / grandfather clause

Why?
continuation of jim-crow like shenanigans to prevent AA suffrage
Henry Grady

When:
1893

Where:
Atlanta GA
Who:
editor of Atlanta Constitution

What:
sought to promote N. invest in S.

Why?
Promoted idealistic "New South" - working hand-in-hand with former slaves, providing a peaceful enthusiastic workforce.
Booker T Washington
page 762

When:
1895

Where:
Tuskegee
Who:
Founder of the Tuskegee Institute

What:
AA "Fighter of Adversity"

Why?
"the atlanta compromise" - as dubbed by Dubois was booker's speech that basically said to compromise and work industry jobs
W E B Dubois
page 763

When:
1895

Where:
America
Who:
First AA Harvard Grad

What:
AA "Fighter of Adversity"
- against booker

Why?
virulently opposed bookers view… wanting total equality now… vs later. later, he was a founding member of NAACP
Plessy vs Ferguson
page 759

When?
1896

Where?
New Orleans
Who?
Homer Plessy
(Octaroon) (1/8 AA)

What?
S.Court case over race-separated rail cars

Why?
Established "Separate but equal" rubric
Pendleton Act
page 872

When?
1883

Where?
DC
Who?
Chester Arthur / Mugwumps

What?
An act to change the way elections worked

Why?
Got rid of the existing "spoils system"
(popular president win, "to the victor goes the spoils")
established "merit system" in government.
Grover Cleveland
page 874

When?
President in 1885

Where?
DC
Who?
Reform Candidate

What?
Democrat w/ Illegitimate Son

Why?
- vetoed many self-serving bills
- "though the people support the government,
the government should not support the people"
- made the issue of tariff reform central to politics
Interstate Commerce Act / ICC
page 876

When?
1887

Where?
DC
Who?
Cleveland

What?
Independent Federal Regulatory Commission

Why?
it was the first group appointed to see to it that government regulations/rules were being enforced… the ICC made sure that all freight cars were "reasonable and just" and that no secret deals/lobbying/bribery of gov were taking place
The Influence of Sea Power

When?
1890

Where?
DC I'm sure...
Who?
Mahan - Navy Guy

What?
A book on the correlation between strong navy - successful country

Why?
Inspired Congress - who went and built an entire fleet (the white fleet) of navy ships…

white ships = fail
Populist Party

When?
1892

Where?
DC...
Who?
James Weaver / Farmers Co-op

What?
A 3rd party

Why?
- anti-monopoly
- farmers protection
- popular control of gov
- SUB TREASURY PLAN
(store crop in government storage, farmer - can borrow against its worth… doesnt happen)
Spanish-American War

When?
1898

Where?
Cuba / US
Who?
President McKinley

What?
fairly small war… US got involved to defend cuba (whoopin spanish ass)

Why?
- Emergence of teddy roosevelt
- need for canal (panama)
- US gained puerto rico, guam, phillippines (cuba = protectorate)
Open Door / Boxer Rebellion

When?
1899

Where?
China / US
Who?
McKinley / Chinese / Hayes

What?
China's plea for independence

Why?
made us friends with china.. even though we were forced by treaty to aid EU troops
Victoria Woodhull

When?
1872

Where?
Born in Ohio
Who?
first female presidential candidate

What?
advocate for "free love"
and "total equality"
(women's rights)

Why?
while her name wasn't actually on the ballot, and she didn't receive any electoral / popular votes… she was the first woman to run for president, with an AA as her VP
Progressivism

When?
1903 - 1920 (The Progressive Era)

Where?
The US
Who?
mostly, white middle-class educated men
(contrary to women/AA initial thought)

What?
a self proclaimed "stability-seeking" group
(tired of the market fluctuation)

Why?
1) catalysts for the emergence of new government concepts
2) women emerged as the "key to change"
- universal suffrage
(10 days: Essay Question)

How did the assassination of President William McKinley unexpectedly change America?
President William McKinley's death unexpectedly changed America by elevating Vice-President Theodore Roosevelt to an "accidental" presidency, laying the foundation for the nation's transformation from a "rural republic" to it's emergence as a world power in the 20th century.
NWA / NAWSA

When?
1862 / 1869

Where?
America
Who?
old school / new womens activists

What?
fought for womens suffrage rights

Why?
reserved / hardcore
- hardcore demands / protests / strikes for rights
Margaret Sanger

When?
1915

Where?
Chicago / NY?
Who?
founder of national BC league

What?
fought illegal status of discussing BC

Why?
paved the way for women to have a say in whether they had children… "the pill" finally made legal in 1961 (just prior to her death)
Ida B Welles

When?
1890s

Where?
Tennessee
Who?
AA author

What?
Editor of "free speech & headlight"

Why?
- Helped found Negro Fellowship League
- fought to cast light on "lynchings"
- helped WEB found NAACP
- fought for black civil / political rights until death
Progressive Amendments

When?
1913 - 1920

Where?
Washington
Who?
Wilson / Congress / States

What?
16th: income tax
17th: direct election of senators
18th: prohibition
19th: women's suffrage

Why?
- enabled more government action
- furthered "true" democracy
- nascar / the mob / showed women's power even w/out vote
- gave women a legit pols. voice
The Jungle

When?
1906

Where?
Northern Industrialized Cities
Who?
Upton Sinclair

What?
wrote a book to expose the plight of immigrant workers

Why?
What the hell's in my hamburger?
- Pure Food & Drug Act AND Meat Inspection Act
Robert LaFollette

When?
1901 - 1906

Where?
Wisconsin
Who?
Progressive Republican Robert LaFollette

What?
radical progressive reform:
the idea that… the involvement of specialists (institutions enacted by voters) in law, economics, and social and natural sciences = most effective government

Why?
- direct primary
- regulated RR
- merit system (limiting lobbyists)
Oregon System

When?
1901

Where?
Oregon...
Who?
Oregon Direct Legislation League

What?
Initiative / Referendum / Recall

Why?
A form of "direct government" giving people more of a say in laws / elections
- Initiative: people proposing laws
- referendum: legislators asking citizens opinion
- recall: the ability for citizens to pull people out of office / laws out of legislation
Theodore Roosevelt

When?
1901 - 1909

Where?
Washington
Who?
McKinley's VP elevated to Pres. after Mckinley's assassination in 1901

What?
Progressive President
trustbuster
conservationist
et cetera

Why?
laid the foundation for the nation's transformation from a "rural republic" to it's emergence as a world power in the 20th century.

im teddy damnit
Election of 1912

When?
1912

Where?
DC
Who?
Taft: Repub
Wilson: Demo
Progressive: Roosevelt
(bull moose)

What?
Presidential Election

Why?
- split in Republican vote = weakest Republican effort in history.
- only election: third-party candidate received more popular votes than 1 of major-party
- wilson won, easily