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77 Cards in this Set

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Rockefeller Foundation’s anti mosquito campaign
Mosquitoes transmitted yellow fever and transmitted a deadly virus that caused severe headaches, vomiting, jaundice, and death. Dedicated several million dollars for projects to control yellow fever in L.A. Political effects- strengthening central governments by providing a national public health infrastructure and helping diminish anti U.S. sentiment in a region known for virulent anti Yankeeism
Independent internationalism
Most apt description of interwar U.S. foreign policy. U.S. was active on a global scale but retained its independence of action, its traditional unilateralism
3) American peace movement
Fellowship of reconciliation and the national council for prevention of war drew widespread public support. Most peace groups pointed to carnage of WWI and futility of war as a solution to international problems. Some urged cooperation with the League of Nations and World court.
4) Washington Naval Conference
Delegates from Britain, Japan France Italy Portugal Belgium and the Netherlands joined a U.S. team led by Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes to discuss limits on naval armaments. Hughes opened conference by saying he proposed to achieve real disarmament by offering to scrap thirty major U.S.
5) Five power treaty
500000 tons each for the Americans and the British, 300000 tons for Japanese and 175000 tons for French and Italian. It set a 10 year moratorium on construction of capital ships (battleships and air craft carriers. The gov’ts also pledged not to build new fortifications in their Pacific possessions
Nine power treaty
conferees reaffirmed Open Door in China, recognizing Chinese Sovereignty.
Four power treaty
U.S. Britain Japan and France agreed to respect one another’s Pacific Possessions
6) Kellogg- Briand Pact
62 nations agreed to condemn recourse to war for the solution of international controversies and renounce it as an instrument of national policy
7) Economic and cultural expansion
economic expansion by U.S. would stabilize world politics, America’s most prominent position in the international economy seemed opportune
8) Web Pomerene act (1918
excluded from antitrust prosecution those combinations set up for export trade
Edge Act 1919
permitted American banks to open foreign branch banks and the overseas offices of the Department of Commerce gathered and disseminated valuable market information
9) War Debts and Reparations issue
Europeans urged Americans to erase the gov’t debts as a magnanimous contribution to the war effort. American leaders insisted on repayment some pointing out that the victorious European nations had gained vast territory and resources as war spoils
10) Dawes plan of 1924
greased financial tracks by reducing Germany’s annual payments, extending the repayment period, and providing more loans. U.S also gradually scaled down Allied obligations cutting debt by half in 1920s
11) Young plan of 1929
reduced Germany’s reparations salvaged little as the world economy sputtered and collapsed.
12) Johnson Act of 1934
forbade U.S. government loans to foreign governments in default on debts owed to the U.S.
13) Economic nationalism
As depression deepened tariff wars revealed a reinvigorated economic nationalism. In 1932 25 nations had retaliated against rising Am. Tariffs by imposing higher rates on foreign imports. World trade declined and Exports of Am. Merchandise slumped
14) London Conference of 1933
President Roosevelt barred US. Cooperation in international currency stabilization
15) Secretary of State Cordell Hull
finding a way out of the crisis depended on reviving world trade. Increased trade, he insisted, not only would help U.S. pull itself out of economic doldrums but also would boost chances fro global peace
16) Reciprocal trade agreements act 1934
empowered the president to reduce U.S. tariffs by as much as 50 percent through special agreements with foreign countries.
17) Most favored national principle
whereby the U.S. was entitled to the lowest tariff rate set by any nation with which it had an agreement
18) Export Import Bank
a government agency that provided loans to foreigners for the purchase of American goods. The bank stimulated trade and became a diplomatic weapon allowing U.S. to exact concessions through the approval
19) Diplomatic recognition of the Soviet Union
Roosevelt granted U.S. diplomatic recognition to the Soviet Union in Return for Soviet agreement to discuss the debts question, to forgo subversive activities in U.S. and grant Americans in the Soviet Union religious freedom and legal rights
20) Good neighbor policy
U.S would be less blatant in its domination and less willing to defend exploitative business practices, less eager to launch military expeditions and less reluctant to consult with Latin Americans. Roosevelt called home U.S. military forces in Haiti and restored some sovereignty to Panama and increased income from canal. Such acts enhanced Roosevelt’s popularity in Latin America
21) Fulgencio Batista
Took power in Cuba in 1934. During Batista era, which lasted until Fidel Castro dethroned Batista in 1959, Cuba attracted and protected U.S. investments while it aligned itself with U.S. foreign policy goals
22) Lazaro Cardenas
new gov’t pledged Mexico for the Mexicans and promptly strengthened trade unions so they could strike against foreign corporations
23) Mexican expropriation controversy
- in a statement of economic independence the Cardenas gov’t boldly expropriated the property of all foreign owned petroleum companies calculating that the war in Europe would restrain U.S. from attacking Mexico. U.S countered by reducing purchases of Mexican silver and promoting a multinational business boycott against nation
24) Facism
collection of ideas and prejudices that celebrated supremacy of the state over the individual; of dictatorship over democracy; of authoritarianism over freedom of speech; of a regulated, state oriented economy over a free market economy; and of militarism and war over peace
25) Rome Berlin Axis
1936 Italy and Germany formed an alliance
Anti Comintern Pact
Germany and Japan united against the Soviet Union
26) Policy of appeasement
Britain and France responded with this hoping to curb Hitler’s expansionist appetite by permitting him a few territorial nibbles. Proved disastrous, for German leader continually raised his demands
13) Economic nationalism
As depression deepened tariff wars revealed a reinvigorated economic nationalism. In 1932 25 nations had retaliated against rising Am. Tariffs by imposing higher rates on foreign imports. World trade declined and Exports of Am. Merchandise slumped
14) London Conference of 1933
President Roosevelt barred US. Cooperation in international currency stabilization
15) Secretary of State Cordell Hull
finding a way out of the crisis depended on reviving world trade. Increased trade, he insisted, not only would help U.S. pull itself out of economic doldrums but also would boost chances fro global peace
16) Reciprocal trade agreements act 1934
empowered the president to reduce U.S. tariffs by as much as 50 percent through special agreements with foreign countries.
17) Most favored national principle
whereby the U.S. was entitled to the lowest tariff rate set by any nation with which it had an agreement
18) Export Import Bank
a government agency that provided loans to foreigners for the purchase of American goods. The bank stimulated trade and became a diplomatic weapon allowing U.S. to exact concessions through the approval
19) Diplomatic recognition of the Soviet Union
Roosevelt granted U.S. diplomatic recognition to the Soviet Union in Return for Soviet agreement to discuss the debts question, to forgo subversive activities in U.S. and grant Americans in the Soviet Union religious freedom and legal rights
20) Good neighbor policy
U.S would be less blatant in its domination and less willing to defend exploitative business practices, less eager to launch military expeditions and less reluctant to consult with Latin Americans. Roosevelt called home U.S. military forces in Haiti and restored some sovereignty to Panama and increased income from canal. Such acts enhanced Roosevelt’s popularity in Latin America
21) Fulgencio Batista
Took power in Cuba in 1934. During Batista era, which lasted until Fidel Castro dethroned Batista in 1959, Cuba attracted and protected U.S. investments while it aligned itself with U.S. foreign policy goals
22) Lazaro Cardenas
new gov’t pledged Mexico for the Mexicans and promptly strengthened trade unions so they could strike against foreign corporations
23) Mexican expropriation controversy
- in a statement of economic independence the Cardenas gov’t boldly expropriated the property of all foreign owned petroleum companies calculating that the war in Europe would restrain U.S. from attacking Mexico. U.S countered by reducing purchases of Mexican silver and promoting a multinational business boycott against nation
24) Facism
collection of ideas and prejudices that celebrated supremacy of the state over the individual; of dictatorship over democracy; of authoritarianism over freedom of speech; of a regulated, state oriented economy over a free market economy; and of militarism and war over peace
25) Rome Berlin Axis
1936 Italy and Germany formed an alliance
Anti Comintern Pact
Germany and Japan united against the Soviet Union
26) Policy of appeasement
Britain and France responded with this hoping to curb Hitler’s expansionist appetite by permitting him a few territorial nibbles. Proved disastrous, for German leader continually raised his demands
27) Abraham Lincoln Battalion
3000 American volunteers joined the fight on the side of the Loyalist repubs which also had the backing of the Soviet Union
28) The Munich conference
- France and Britain agreed to allow Hitler to this territorial bite, in exchange for a pledge that he would not take more
29) American isolationist sentiment
Many wanted to embrace isolationism whose key elements were abhorrence of war and fervent opposition to U.S. alliances with other nations. Conservative isolationists feared higher taxes and increased executive power if the nation went to war again. Liberal isolationists worried that domestic problems might go unresolved as the nation spent more time on the military. Many predicted attempting to spread democracy abroad would cause Americans to lose their freedom at home; most opposed fascism and condemned aggression. Isolationist sentiment strongest in the Midwest among anti British ethnic groups
30) Nye Committee hearings
Congressional committee headed by Sen. Gerald p. Nye held hearings from 1934-1936 on the role of business and financiers in the U.S. decision to enter the first world war. Did not prove that the American munitions makers had dragged nation into that war but it did uncover evidence that corporations practicing “Rotten commercialism” had bribed foreign politicians to bolster arms sales in the 1920s and 1930s and had lobbied against arms control
31) Neutrality act of 1935
prohibited arms shipments to either side in a war once the president had declared the existence of belligerency
Neutrality act of 1936-
forbade loans to belligerents
Neutrality act of 1937
introduced the cash-and-carry principle: warring nations wishing to trade with the U.S. would have to pay cash for their nonmilitary purchases and carry the goods from U.S. ports in their own ships. Also forbade Americans from traveling on the ships of belligerent nations
32) Roosevelt’s Chautauqua speech
he expressed prevailing isolationist opinion and made a pitch for the pacifist vote in the upcoming election. He promised the U.S. would remain unentangled in the European conflict
33) Voyage of the St. Louis
Vessel left Hamburg in mid 1939 carrying 930 desperate Jewish refugees who lacked proper immigration documents. Denied entry to Havana the st. Louis went to Miami where coast guard cutters prevented it from docking. The ship was forced to return back to Europe
34) Nazi Soviet Pact
In 1939 Berlin signed a nonaggression pact with Moscow
35) German invasion of Poland
Sept 1 German tank columns rolled into Poland. German fighting panes covered the advance, launching a new type of warfare the blitzkrieg (lightning war) highly mobile land forces and armor combined with tactical aircraft. With in 48 hours Britain and France responded by declaring war on Germany.
36) Repeal of the arms embargo (neutrality act of 1939
In November congress lifted the embargo on contraband and approved cash and carry exports and arms. Using methods of short war Roosevelt thus began to aid the allies.
37) The good earth
Pearl Buck- countered prevailing images of the very different and thus deviant “heathen Chinese” by representing the Chinese as noble, persevering peasants
38) Jiang Jieshi
Civil war broke out in china when Jiang Jieshi ousted Mao Zedong and his communist followers from the ruling Guomindang Party. Am. Applauded this anti bolshevism and Jiang’s conversion to Christianity in 1930.His Wife Meiling was American educated spoke flawless English and dressed in western fashion and cultivated ties with prominent Americans.
39) Japanese seizure of Manchuria
1931 Japanese military seized Manchuria from China, weakened by civil war and unable to resist. Manchuria served as both buffer against the Soviets and vital source of coal iron timber and food. More than half of Japan’s foreign investments rested in Manchuria
40) Stimson Doctrine
The U.S. would not recognize any impairment of China’s sovereignty or of the open door policy. Later described policy as a bluff
41) Sino Japanese war- 1937
Japanese forces seized Beijing and cities along the Coast. The bombing of Shanghai intensified anti Japanese sentiment in the United States.
42) Roosevelt’s quarantine speech
- speech denouncing the aggressors on October 5, 1937 the pres. Called for a quarantine to curb the epidemic of world lawlessness
43) Panay incident
Dec. 12 Japanese air craft sank the American gunboat Panay an escort for Standard oil company tankers on the Yangtze River. 2 American sailors died during the attack. Tokyo apologized and offered to pay for damages.
44) Japan’s New Order
in Asia, in the words of one Am. Official “banged, barred and bolted the open door. Alarmed the Roosevelt administration during 1930s gave loans sold military equipment to Jiang’s Chinese government.
45) Fall of France
At Dunkirk, France, between May 26 and June 6, more than 300000 Allied soldiers frantically escaped to Britain on a flotilla of small boats. The Germans occupied Paris a week later. A new French gov’t located in town of Vichy decided to collaborate with the Nazis and on June 22, surrendered France to Berlin. Now that France was out of war German Luftwaffe (air force) launched massive bombing raids against GB in preparation for full scale invasion.
46) Destroyers for bases agreement
The president traded 50 over age American destroyers for leases to 8 British military bases including Newfoundland, Bermuda and Jamaica.
47) Selective training and service act
first peacetime military draft in American history. The act called for the registration of all men between the ages of 21 and 35
48) Lend lease act
Because Britain was broke the U.S. should lend rather than sell weapons much like a neighbor lends garden hose to fight a fire. March 1941 the house passed it. To ensure safe delivery of Lend lease goods Roosevelt ordered the U.S. navy to patrol halfway across The Atlantic and he sent American troops to Greenland
49) Atlantic Charter
Roosevelt and Churchill issued this. A set of war aims reminiscent of Wilsonianism: collective security, disarmament, self determination, economic cooperation and freedom of the seas.
50) Greer
- Sept. 4 German submarine launched torpedoes at this American destroyer. Roosevelt promised a policy that American warships would convoy British Merchant ships across the ocean. The u.s. entered in an undeclared naval war with Germany
Kearny-
Oct. a German sub torpedoed this u.s. destroyer off the coast of Iceland, the president announced that the Shooting had started
Reuben James
destroyer went down with the loss of more than one hundred American lives. Congress scrapped the cash and carry policy and further revised the Neutrality acts to permit transport of munitions to Britain on armed American merchant ships
51) Tripartite pact-
Sept. 1940 after Germany, Italy and Japan had signed the pact to form the axis powers) Roosevelt slapped an embargo on shipments of aviation fuel and scrap metal to Japan
52) Japanese occupation of French Indochina
After they occupied in July 1941, Washington froze Japanese assets in the U.S. virtually ending trade including oil with Japan
53) Operation MAGIC
deciphering messages through this, American officials learned that Tokyo’s patience with diplomacy was fast dissipating. In late Nov. the Japanese rejected American demands that they withdraw from Indochina. An intercepted message that American exports decoded instructed Japanese embassy to burn codes and destroy cipher machines.
54) Surprise attack on pearl harbor
an armada of 60 Japanese ships with a core of 6 carriers bearing 360 airplanes crossed 3000 miles of the Pacific Ocean. Early morning of December 7, 230 miles of Honolulu the carriers unleashed their planes, each stamped with red sun representing Japanese flag. They came down on the unsuspecting American naval base and nearby airfields dropping torpedoes and bombs and strafing buildings. Damaged 8 battle ships and many smaller vessels and smashed more than 160 aircraft on the ground. 2403 died and 1178 were wounded