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75 Cards in this Set

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Ten Percent Plan (1863)
-replace majority rule with loyal rule
-quick solution to please northern Democrats
-pardon all ex-confederates exc. High ranking officials
-10% of voters (white males, no blacks or women or newcomers) take loyalty oath
-return land...want to bring the South back into the Union
-Congress was displeased…terms to lenient
Wade Davis Bill (1864)
-Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Congressman Davis of MD
-3 Conditions
1. majority of white male citizens in new government
2. men had to take an “iron clad” oath (that they never aided the Confederacy)
3. all officers above the rank of lieutenant and civil officials would be disfranchised and deemed “non citizens”
-must ban slavery, debts must be paid
-Lincoln pocket-vetoed the bill
Thaddeus Stevens
proposed the ‘conquered provinces’ theory…
-Drew up a plan for extensive confiscation and redistribution of land
- failed
Freedman’s Bureau (1865
provided medical, healthcare, voting, education
-starts from charities…no congressional funding
-supposed to be for only 1 year
-during Johnson's terms
Black Codes
suppressed blacks freedom
Mississippi Plan
the people of Mississippi had a consistent system for keeping blacks from voting… anything to keep republicans from getting elected
Thaddeus Stevens
proposed the ‘conquered provinces’ theory…
-Drew up a plan for extensive confiscation and redistribution of land
- failed
Enforcement Acts (1870/71)
things congress set up to enforce the rules in the south, Klan Act- government right to persecute Klan members, right to suspend habeas corpus and allow federal troops to go in
Compromise of 1877
Disputed Election of 1876
-disputed electoral votes in southern states…
-Hayes was said to have won based on a DEAL- Republican
-promised he would take federal troops out of the South
-ended Reconstruction
Exodusters
1877 the freedmen who leave the south and go to Kansas
13th Amendment (1865)
abolished slavery, and gave Congress power to enforce this outcome
14th Amendment (1868)
1.-granted slaves citizenships and guaranteed “privileges and immunities”
-due process of law
-equal protection of the laws
2. -declared the Confederate debt null and void… made it a US debt
3. -barred Confederate leaders from holding state and federal offices
4. –blacks given a full vote- came up with other rule stop prevent blacks (Jim crow laws)
15th Amendment (1870)
forbade states to deny the right to vote on account of race color, or servitudes
Frederick Jackson Turner
“frontier thesis”, the advancement of American settlement westward historian, American idealism came from the west “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” wrote to take ideals away from Europe
Timber and Stone Act (1878)
- Congress passed to stimulate settlement in CA, NV, OR, WA,
- it allowed private citizen to buy, at a low price, 160 acres plots for “unfit cultivation” and “valuable chiefly for timber
John Muir
naturalist helped to establish Yellow Stone Park in 1890
Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 and 1890
-gave each state federal land to sell in order to finance educational institutions that aided agricultural development.
Second Morrill Act- aided schools, and black colleges
Newlands Reclamation Act (1902)
Congress passed, allowed the federal government to sell western public lands to individuals in parcels not to exceed 160 acres -controlled land but not water
Battle of Little Big Horn (1876)
led by Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, Rain-in-the Face VS Custer (killed), right before the end of Reconstruction, last major battle the Indians won, Indians wiped out the entire regiment, considered a massacre, Indians say that the battle was between to armed armies
Carlisle School, PA (1879)
-served as a flagship of the government’s Indian schools, boarding schools, established by reformers who viewed schools as tools to create a well-integrated patriotic, industrial nation, educated the Indian children to rid them of their barbaric habits
Dawes Severalty Act (1887)
- authorized dissolution of community-owned Indian property and granted land allotments to individual Native American families.
-government held trust for 25 years and families could not sell
-awarded citizenship to all who accepted allotments
Massacre at Wounded Knee (1890)
-Federal troops win, Gooth Stand Movement
-encouraged people to dance themselves into a trance, armies scared Indians would unite, attacked a moving band of Indians and killed them all
Frederick Jackson Turner
“frontier thesis”, the advancement of American settlement westward historian, American idealism came from the west “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” wrote to take ideals away from Europe
Frederick W. Taylor
-studied workers and devised a series of motions, which can me made quickest and best, mastered efficiency…
-Principles of Scientific Management (1898)
Social Darwinism
philosophy from Charles Darwin’s theory of survival of the fittest onto laissez faire
-doctrine said that government should not interfere in private economic affairs
-monopolies represented the natural accumulation of economic power by those best suited
Andrew Carnegie
-leader of steel company, controlled all aspects of the business, did what was good and necessary for the society but not paying workers decent wagers, wrote the Gospel of Wealth
The Gospel of Wealth
Money received goes back to the people…or so they say, believed in social Darwinism, that the big business leaders and other industrialists were guardians of society’s wealth and that they had a duty to fulfill their obligation in humane ways… such as philanthropy
Knights of Labor
founded in Philly in 1869, Terence Powderly was the grand master, unskilled and skilled, men and women, blacks and whites (most inclusive), co-ops workers should become less dependent on workers, not violent quite influential
American Federation of Labor
an alliance of national craft unions, skilled workers, white only, men only, led by Samuel Gompers, wanted higher wages, shorter hours, and the right to bargain collectively, most successful
Industrial Workers and the World (Wobblies)
wanted to unify all laborers, wanted to seize and run the nation’s industries, more violent, socialist and radical
Railroad Strikes of 1877
unionized railroad workers protested wage cuts, bad violence and destruction, Hayes had to send in troops to end the violence
Haymarket Riot (1886)
May 3, 1886 in Chicago, radical anarchist wanted the 8 hour work day, McCormick reaper factory, bombing blew up citizens
Pullman Strike (1894)
Car Company walked out in protest when George Pullman cut wages 25%, Eugene Debs aided the strike by refusing to handle any Pullman cars attached to any train- founder of the Socialist Party- goes to jail, Cleveland ended the strike
Eugene Debs
aided the strike by refusing to handle any Pullman cars attached to any train- founder of the Socialist Party- goes to jail, Cleveland ended the strike
Haymarket Riot (1886)
May 3, 1886 in Chicago, radical anarchist wanted the 8 hour work day, McCormick reaper factory, bombing blew up citizens
Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)
made illegal “every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy in the restraint of trade”
-very vague, and ineffective
Henry George
wrote Progress and Poverty (1879): single tax on unearned income, believed that inequality stemmed from the ability of a few to profit from rising land values
Edward Bellamy
wrote Looking Backward (1888): government owned all means of production, nationalism, no class conflict, believed competitive capitalism promoted waste, and that the establishment of a state in which government owned the means of production
Upton Sinclair
wrote The Jungle (1906): wrote a novel that disclosed crimes of the meatpacking industry, a fictional expose of the Chicago meatpacking plants, Roosevelt ordered the Meat Inspection Act in 1906, enforced government regulation
Tenement Law of 1867, 1879, 1901
- 1867: passed in New York, minimum facilities for fire escape, must have indoor plumbing for every 20 inhabitants, every room had to have access to a window
- 1879: every room HAS to have a window
- 1901: air shaft stays but must be wider for better ventilation, every apartment must have a separate bathroom, better fire protection measures, only applied to new buildings, 80,000 buildings were not required to adapt to the new law
Dumbbell Tenement
design competition winner, created to give every room a window created airshafts to have an opening, which would have a window, had no circulation, dumped trash in airshafts, created diseases and brought rats, spread fire more rapidly, tons of noise
Lawrence Veiller
first professional housing reformer, humanitarian, advocated housing low-income families in model tenements with more spacious rooms and better facilities
Jacob Riis
wrote How the Other Half Lives (1890) journalist, photographer, documented the plight of the poor with pictures, helped Lawrence reform, implemented a standard of living, Roosevelt credited Riis with altering the housing reforms
The Pendleton Civil Service Act
passed by Congress in 1882, signed by President Arthur in 1883, created the Civil Service Commission to oversee competitive examinations for government positions, ended the spoils system
Interstate Commerce Act
-the law prohibited pools, rebate, and long-haul/short-haul rate discrimination
-Created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)- to investigate railroad rate-making methods, issue cease-and-desist orders against illegal practices, and seek court aid to enforce compliance
Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890
increased the government’s monthly purchase of silver by specifying weight, rather than dollars, compromise between gold and silver
- helps the miners in the west, the poor, and the farmers, repelled in 1893 during economic recession
Gold Silver Act
signed by McKinley in 1900- requiring that all paper money be backed by gold
Roosevelt Corollary
1904: warned Latin Americans to stabilize their politics and finances, rationalized the US intervention in Latin America, Monroe Doctrine said no one could interfere with the Western Hemisphere but the Corollary said the America can
Federal Reserve Act
1913- established the nation’s first central banking system, created 12 district banks to hold reserves of member banks throughout the nation, district banks would lend money to member banks at a low interest rate called the discount trade… money would no longer be bases on gold supply.. national banking system with regional autonomy
Clayton Anti Trust Act
1914- corrected deficiencies of the Sherman Anti Trust Act by outlawing monopolistic practices such as price discrimination (efforts to destroy competition by lowering prices in some regions but not others), and interlocking directorates (management of two or more competing companies by the same executives)… does NOT apply to Unions!!
Federal Trade Commission
1914- would investigate companies and issue cease and desist orders against unfair trade practices
Jane Addams
founder of Settlement House Movement- Hull House (a slum for middle-class reformers to help and learn from working–class immigrants), taught them Shakespeare, basic needs, help bridge the gap between immigrants and other social classes
National Origins Act
1924: tried to keep out certain people, set quotas, 2% of the immigrant population from 1890 can come into the country every year
-1943- 100 Chinese could come in a year
-1952- Asians could become American citizens
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896- Separate but Equal
19th Amendment
1920, Roosevelt, WWI women contribute to the war and get the vote, calls it a War Measure
Maine
(1898)- Washington ordered the battleship Maine into Havana harbor to demonstrate US concern and to protect American citizens
-Maine had an explosion and killed many Americans
-Accused Spain of placing a mine
-one factor to start the Cuban war
Alfred Mahan
(1890)- proponent of the Navy “Influence of Sea Power upon History”
De Lome Letter
1898- Spanish Ambassador sends a letter criticizing President McKinley
Monroe Doctrine
(1823) Doctrine prohibited European Powers from denying self-government to nations in the Western Hemisphere
Selective Service Act
1917: every make between 20-30 has to register, they are drafted as needed
The Teller Amendment
(1898)- outlawed the annexation of Cuba, but officials in Washington soon used the document’s call for “pacification” to justify US control, said we would go to war but we would not stay
Platt Amendment
(1903) prohibited Cuba from making a treaty with another nation that might impair its independence- all treaties had to have US approval
The Revenue Act
1916- raising the surtax on high incomes and corporate profits and significantly increasing the tax on munitions manufacturers, profit that the public should value from
The War Revenue Act of 1917
provided for a more steeply graduated personal income tax, a corporate income tax, and excess-profits tax, increased excise taxes on alcoholic beverages, tobacco, and luxury items
Henry Cabot Lodge
Senator, from New England, Political Party/Interest Group- Republican, super conservative, snob, Argument- against the league of nations, VERY MUCH AGAINST IT, anti immigration
Warren Harding
Republican, very conservative, works well with the Democratic political machines, CORRUPT, Argument- against joining the League of Nations
Rabbi Stephen Wise
Democratic, socialist activist, co-founder of the NAACP, Argument- believes the war is a holy cause, not any war- it is the war, men should go and fight, for a jewish state
Samuel Grompers
head of the AFL, Democratic, peoples war, labors war, we must unite,
Newton Baker
Secretary of War, Political Party/Interest Group- Democrat, Argument- for going to war to protect Americans freedom, cut back on army cost, wants to fight to protect children and freedom, supporter of the League of Nations
Balfour Declaration
1917- British help Jews establish their own declaration, Palistines claimed that their needs were also assumed to have liberty to their own state as well- but they were not
Espionage Act
1917- forbade false statements designed to impede the draft or promote military insubordination, banned treasonous mail
Sedition Act
1918- made in unlawful to obstruct the sale of war bonds and to use bad language to describe the government, the constitution, the flag, or the uniform
Schenck v. US
1919- upheld the espionage act, the supreme court adhered to the traditional view rather than Baldwin’s (a keen objector to the espionage act and defender of those accused under the Espionage and Sedition Act, for freedom of speech) because of the defense of clear and present danger~ assuming it would bring down the War
The Red Scare
refers to the time after the war when people accused other of Communism, Hoover head the Radical Division of the Department of Justice- people were placed on a list and arrested, Red Scare- Bolshevik Revolution in 1917-American hatred for the Kaiser’s Germany went to the communist Russian, Called radical Americans- RED- in regard to the communist flag
Palmer Raids
arrested hundreds accused of Communism, jailed them, and denied them counsel, Hoover head the Radical Division of the Department of Justice- people were placed on a list and arrested, Palmer is the attorney general who leads the effort the crack down on the Socialist party