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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who was Queen Elizabeth's principal tutor?
Roger Asham
What were the major issues of Queen Elizabeth's reign?
Questions of succession, future religion, and marriage
Who defended Elizabeth's right to the Crown?
Phillip II of Spain (her brother-in-law)
Who did Queen Elizabeth appoint as Secretary of State?
Sir William Cecil
Who was considered a nation builder?
Sir William Cecil
What were the other titles that Sir William Cecil held?
Baron of Burghley, Lord Treasurer, Master of the Court of Lords
Describe the Act of Supremacy under Elizabeth's 1st Parliament.
It restored royal supremacy over the church, but since Elizabeth was a woman, she could only be governor rather than supreme head.
Describe the Act of Uniformity under Elizabeth's 1st Parliament.
It adopted the former version of the Book of Common Prayer but open attacks against the Bishop of Rome were dropped and it was OK to kneel and make the sign of the Cross
Who did Elizabeth appoint as Archbishop that wrote the 39 Articles--a definition of faith of the new church?
Matthew Parker
Who were the group of people under the direct control of the Pope with the functions of education and evangelism?
Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
What was the name of the council summoned on Papal authority to transform the medieval church?
Council of Trent
What treaty agreed that Calais would remain in French hands and confirmed Spanish predominance in Italy?
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
What were the 3 bishoprics that the French held in the Holy Roman Empire?
Metz, Toul, and Verdun
Who was the central figure of the Scottish reformation?
John Knox
Who was the principal disciple of Calvin that published "First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women"?
John Knox
Since Elizabeth would not allow Knox to return to England, who welcomed him?
The Scottish Lords of the Congregation
What was the treaty that agreed that the French and English would withdraw from Scotland and that Mary Queen of Scots would give up her rights to the English Crown?
Treaty of Edinburgh
When the Scottish Parliament wiped away the old medieval church, what was the church that was created along Calvinist lines?
After Francis II, Mary Queen of Scot's husband, died, who did Mary fall in love with?
Henry Stewart Lord Darnley
Why couldn't Mary annul her marriage to Darnley?
She discovered she was pregnant
To whom did Mary turn to for advice?
David Rizzio (secretary)
How did the Protestant Lords convince Darnley to turn against Rizzio?
They said Mary's unborn child was Rizzio's rather than Darnley's.
What did Darnley have done to Rizzio?
Had men stab Rizzio repeatedly.
Who did Mary give birth to?
What was the private home for Lord Darnley?
Kirk O'Fields
What happenned to Kirk O'Fields?
Blown Up
How was Darnley killed?
Strangled (rather than by explosion)
Who was speculated to have murdered Darnley?
Earl of Bothwell (Queen's advisor)
Who did Mary marry?
Earl of Bothwell
What was Mary forced to do after marrying Bothwell?
Abdicate the throne to her son James VI
Who was Mary romantic with next?
The son of her jailer who helped her to escape
After raising an army, where did Mary meet government forces?
the Battle of Landside (Mary defeated)
What was the greatest dilemma of Queen Elizabeth's reign?
That Mary fled across the English border
What were the letters that Mary wrote to Bothwell (before and after Darnley's death)?
Casket Letters (these gave Elizabeth the excuse not to receive Mary)
Who discovered Mary's plots to replace Elizabeth?
Sir Francis Walshingham
Who established correspondence with Mary through beer barrels?
Anthony Babington (Walshingham knew about this)
What was the Anglo-French alliance that came about due to relationships with Spain deteriorating and the fear of Spain's power?
Treaty of Blois
What was the result of the marriage of Protestant Henry Navarre to Catholic Marguerite of Valois?
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre (many Protestants slaughtered)
Who was the major English naval captain that was trapped by Spanish ships and lost 4 of his 7 ships?
John Hawkins
Who was the cousin of Hawkins that led an exhibition to the Caribbean for revenge against Spain?
Francis Drake
Who sent the Spanish army to the Netherlands and the Protestants fled to the north and the Catholics fled to the south?
Phillip II
Who was the wealthy nobleman that was the leader of a revolt, was elected as head of the Dutch Republic and was murdered by a Catholic fanatic?
William Prince of Orange
What did the 7 northern provinces of the Netherlands establish in 1579?
the Dutch Republic
Who were the great noblemen/landowners that were responsible for civil and military administration?
Lords Left-Tenant
What did the Catholic league in France sign with Phillip II in 12/1584?
Treaty of Joinville
What was the result of the Treaty of Joinville?
France embarked on the 8th religious war-the war of the three Henrys (Henry Navarre, Henry of Guise, and Henry III)
Who did Elizabeth man with many ships to seize the Spanish treasury ships after English ships had been seized that were in Spanish ports?
Drake (succesful)
Who was Phillip's new commander in 1588?
Duke of Medina Sedonia
How did the Spanish ships sail?
In a Crescent Formation
Where did the Spanish land that make them vulnerable to the English fire boats?
What was the 2nd phase of the war with Spain marked by?
Henry Duke of Guise was murdered, Henry III was assassinated, and thus Henry Navarre became Henry IV of France
What did Henry IV do to gain popularity?
Converted from Protestantism to Catholicism
What was the treaty between the English, French, and Dutch Republic against Spain in 1596?
Treaty of Greenich
What did James I do in regards to Spain?
Made peace with them (1604)
What did the political/cultural structure in Ireland represent?
Dark Ages
What did the Irish do during Elizabeth's reign?
4 major rebellions
What did James I propose to do with Ireland?
Colonize it with Protestants-many were drawn from the Presbyterian part of Scotland
Which part of Ireland was 2/3 Protestant?
Who were the Protestants that desired to purify the church in England and get rid of things that were Roman/Popish?
How did the Puritans want to change the church (rather than leaving it)?
From within
Which group was largely Puritan?
House of Commons
What were the fines for failure to regularly attend services?
Recusany (not widely enforced until 1570)
What did Pope Pious V issue to condemn, excommunicate, and deprive Elizabeth of her crown?
Regnans in Excelsis
Which Catholic left England to take up residence in Douai, Netherlands, and write the English translation of the Bible?
William Allen
Which group arrived in England in 1580 and worked underground to advance Catholicism?
Jesuit Missionaries
What was directed against Roman Catholics and their priests?
Penal Laws
Which act of Parliament heavily increased recusancy fines?
Act Against Reconciliation with Rome
Which act considered the presence of Jesuits and Priests in England as high treason?
Act Against Jesuits and Seminary Priests
Which act of Parliament gave the government great powers over Catholics in England and limited them to a 5 mile radius from their homes?
Act Against Popish Recusance
What was an example of the growth of parliamentary liberty during Elizabeth's reign?
Free Speech increased in the House of Commons
What was there a major expansion of in the House of Commons during Elizabeth's reign?
Burrough Seats
How many Parliaments were held during Elizabeth's reign?
What was the end of Elizabeth's reign marked by?
the rise and fall of Robert Earl of Essex
Who were the enemies of Essex?
Cecils--esp. Robert Cecil (secretary of state after Walshingham)
Why was Essex disgraced?
He returned to England form Ireland without being recalled/permitted
What did Essex plot to do?
Overthrow Robert Cecil
Who did Essex hire?
Shakespeare's troupe to perform "Richard II"
What was Essex found guilty of?
High Treason
What is the significance of Essex's rebellion?
It was the last attempt by an aristocrat to overthrow the state
What did Robert Cecil secretly do in 1601?
Entered into correspondence/negotiations with James IV of Scotland
What did Elizabeth refuse to do?
Nominate her successor
What did Cecil hope to establish?
A succession that would be peaceful, Protestant, and in which Cecil would remain powerful
How long was Elizabeth queen?
45 years
Why was James IV (to James I) succession popular?
He was a man and he was Protestant