Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Thomas Cramner
- credited with shaping Protestant
Church of England
- like Luther, he believed in the role
of the "godly prince"
- credited with the "Litany", two
"Prayer Books" among other works
- when church of Rome refused to
be reformed, he took it upon himself
to reform his own province of Canterbury
- burnt as a heretic @ Oxford in 1556
R L Dabney
- Southern Presbyterian
- Teacher, Stateman, Writer, Social
Critic, & Theologian
- Once served as Chief of Staff to
Stonewall Jackson
- legacy tarnished by his vigorous
defense of pre-War southern
institution of slavery
- valued for his work on Systematic
William Farel
- pioneer of Protestantism in
Western Switzerland (Zwinglian)
- traveling evangelist, bold and
fearless, but known to alienate
instead of persuade his opponents
- among those involved in the
reordering of Geneva upon
protestant principles
- recruited Calvin to assist in teh
reformations taking place in Geneva
Scholasticism (4 men)
* Anselm - "I believe in order that I
may understand" / Ontological
Argument: there must exist a being
in reality that is greater than what
can be conceived b/c existence is
greater than non-existence
* Aquinas - Cosmological
arguments: Argument of First Cause
or Prime Mover
* William of Ockham - Ockham's
razor: "What can be done with fewer
(assumptions) is done in vain with more."
* Duns Scotus - cannot hold to an
infinite regress (this reasoning/argument
NOT specific to Duns Scotus alone)
* Bishop of Antioch.
* Wrote seven letters giving insight
into Christians' attitudes toward
* Opposed Gnosticism.
* First to distinguish b/t bishops and elders.
* Martyred under Trajan.
Justin Martyr
* One of the great apologist of the 2nd century
* Personally opposed Marcion.
* He also was the first orthodox
writer to evaluate the relationship
between Christianity and Philosophy.
* He taught that all truth belongs to Christians,
and developed the doctrine of the logos.
* He was beheaded in Rome under Marcus Aurelius.
* First to present the doctrine of the
trinity, though in a rudimentary form
* He was the first major Christian
author to write in Latin.
* He was therefore the first to use
many of the technical words
common in later Christian
theological debates.
* Lived most, if not all, his life in Carthage,
capital of the Roman province of Africa.
* He vigorously opposed heresies in the church
such as Marcionism, and was an
advocate for purity and holiness in the church.
* British monk who settled in Rome.
* An opponent of Augustine
* He denied that human sin was inherited
from Adam.
* Man, he said, was free to act righteously or sinfully.
* Death is not a consequence of sin.
* Adam did not introduce sin,
but merely was a bad example.
* Thus, it is possible not to sin.
* Man is able to chose salvation,
and is able to live for God without
the agency of the Holy Spirit.
* Augustine lived during the
disintegration of the Roman empire. * In 391 he was ordained a priest
and four years later was elevated to
Bishop of Hippo.
* He battled Donatism
(Donatism = the effectiveness of the
sacraments depends on the moral
character of the minister)
and Pelagianism.
(Pelagianism = a person's free will is
totally capable of choosing God
and/or to do good or bad without the
aid of Divine intervention)
* His writings include The City of God and Confessions .
* He was a staunch advocate for the
depravity of man and the primacy of
grace in salvation.
* His works on sin, grace, and predestination
laid the groundwork of the Reformation.
* Morning Star of the Reformation.
* Translated the Bible into middle English.
* Declared a heretic in 1382
* Believed the Bible is the supreme authority,
- that the clergy should hold no propriety,
- that there was no basis for the
doctrine of transubstantiation.
* He was a fore-runner to the Reformation
*Preached against the abuses of the Catholic Church,
especially - the morality of the priests,
- preaching of the Bible in the common
language of the people (not Latin),
- opposed the sale of indulgences, and Papal infallibility.
* He wanted the church to practice
Communion "in both kinds".
* Excommunicated from the church
and burned at the stake 1415.
* Was a Bohemian priest who
discovered Wycliffe's religious writings.
* He compared the character of the Pope to that of Christ,
discovering that the Pope fell quite
short of the mark.
Thus he was excommunicated,
and burned at the stake.
*Credited with being the father of the
Reformation for his posting of the 95 thesis
on the church door in Wittenburg, Germany 1517.
* Excommunicated from the Catholic church
when he refused to recant his positions
after the Diet of Worms.
* An accomplished preacher, author,
and hymn writer .
* Father of the Lutheran church
* Disagreed with Calvin on the issue of communion
as he believed "consubstanciation."
* Born French, he was "suddenly"
converted sometime between 1532-34.
* First published his Institutes in 1536.
* Served as pastor in Geneva, expelled,
and returned three years later
* Some think he set up a theocratic dictatorship there,
but that is untrue-
* Had a major effect on the organization
and expression of what we call Reformed Theology.
* Final edition of the Institutes published in 1559.
* Died in 1564
* An associate of Luther who
brought a soft gentle nature to
Luther's very course mannerisms.
* Wrote Loci Communes and "Augsburg Confession."
* Shifted toward Erasmus;
theology of salvation and towards
Calvin's view of the Lord's
Supper (Christ not present for the
sake of the bread, but for the sake of man).
* Helped draw up the Scots Confession
of Faith (adopted by Parliament)
* Penned the Book of Discipline for
ordering of a Presbyterian form of government
* Penned the Book of Common Order
to guide Presbyterian worship
* He is remembered as the founder of Presbyterianism
and theories on liberty and government.
* Bishop of Rochester.
* Upon the ascendancy of Mary Stuart
as queen of Scots, he fled to the
Continent where he was influenced
by Calvin.
* In 1559, he returned to Scotland,
and became the leader of the Scots Reformation.
* Name applied to those Scottish Presbyterians
who signed the National Covenant
and the Solemn League as well as to their followers.
* They resisted the Episcopal,
"system of church government and
the divine right of Kings
(conflicting with the Stuart dynasty).
* A progressive Protestant Dutch theologian,
* author of a brand of theology known as Arminianism
developed as a reaction against what he saw
as the sternness of Calvinism.
* Arminius discarded the idea of
unconditional predestination
and taught that man had freedom to
choose or reject salvation.
* He was the first to urge that the
state tolerate all religions and
emphasized the more practical
aspects of faith instead of the creedal.
George Whitefield
* An English Calvinistic revivalist
who was a major figure in the Great Awakening.
* Known for his eloquence and
incredible speaking voice,
* he would preach to thousands gathered in the countryside.
* He was also influential in the
founding of orphanages across the colonies.
* His eloquence and intelligence
earned him the friendship of such
notables as Benjamin Franklin.
When, where and why did the PCA begin?
* When: The Presbyterian Church in America
was formed in 1973, under the name
The National Presbyterian Church.
* Where: The first General Assembly
was held at Briarwood Church
in Birmingham Alabama, in 1973.
Col. Jack Williamson was elected moderator
and Morton Smith was elected Stated Clerk.
* Why: The church was formed as a continuing
biblical Presbyterian denomination,
out of the Presbyterian Church in the United States
(the Southern Presbyterian Church).
Due to the rampant liberalism,
especially in the form of Barthianism,
in that denomination, several organizations
had been formed to preserve the
gospel witness in that denomination.
These included the Concerned Presbyterians,
Presbyterian Churchmen United,
the Presbyterian Evangelsitic Fellowship,
and Reformed Theological Seminary.
When things had progressed to such a stage
where a majority of these men came
to a conviction that the PCUS was no longer
a viable organ of gospel witness,
they organized to form the PCA.
What were the concerned groups from within
the PC USA that joined to form the PCA?
* the Concerned Presbyterians,
* Presbyterian Churchmen United,
* the Presbyterian Evangelsitic Fellowship,
* and Reformed Theological Seminary
Which 2 other denominations were
asked to merge with the PCA?
Which Did? & What did they bring with them?
* The OPC & the RPC ES
* The RPC ES did in 1982, and brought
with them: (1) Covenant Theological Seminary
& (2) Covenant College