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26 Cards in this Set

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1. Who were the Tejanos?
Spanish speaking people born in Texas. They joined with settlers fighting for Texas independance.
2. What groups of people made up the Tejano community?
Wealthy rancheros who raised cattle, Vaqueros (cowboys), and peones (poor tenant farmers).
3. Who was Juan Nepomuceno Seguin?
Seguin was a wealthy ranchero, and a leader of the San Antonia area. He recruited Tejanos to fight inside the Alamo. Fought the decisive battle of San Hacinto and won independance.
4. How did the Texans regard the Tejanos after Texas became independant?
There was an anti-Mexican passion. Texans viewed all Spanish speakers as enemies, and forced them from their home. Though the Tejanos played a key role in the Texas Revolution, they were excluded from positions of power.
5. What were the annual gatherings of fur trappers and traders in the Rockies called?
Rendez-vous.
6. What was the greatest spur to exploration in North America?
The fur trade.
7. What type of people were involved in the fur trade in the West?
Traders ranged from blacks, matis (people of mixed European and Indian ancestry), and Mexicans. There were many languages, which formed a "polyglot" and these traders gathered to drink, trade, and gamble.
8. How did the government contribute to the development of the West?
The government sponsered exploration. They sent out expeditions to spot trails, survey and plot land under the Land Ordinance of 1785. Veterans were given land, and the government also sold land at low prices. They also removed Indians from to-be-purchased lands.
9. What artists painted the West?
Karl Bodmer, a German who went on a private expedition in the West paid for by the German prince, Maxamillion. Thomas Moran, Albert Bierstadt, Alfred Jacob Miller painted "Bourgeois Walker and His Wife" in 1837.
10. Who was Jedediah Smith?
Jedidiah Smith found the first route west.
11. Why were the Great Plains regarded as the Great American Desert?
The soil was too dry and infertile to farm. There were not many trees and thick sod.
12. After 1854, what territories were carved out of the portion of Indian Territory west of the Missouri River?
Kansas and Nebraska
13. What type of societies did the "Five Civilised Tribes" develop in the southern part of Indian territory, now Oklahoma?
They developed a self-governing society with plantations and slaves.
14. Who was Frederick Jackson Turner?
A famous late 19th century historian. He came up with the frontier thesis: repeated experience of setting new frontiers across the continent shaped Americans into adventurous, optimistic people.
15. Who was John O'Sullivan, and what was Manifest Destiny?
A journalist who coined the phrase "manifest destiny" in 1845. He believed Americans had a basic right to spread across the continent and conquer whomever stood in their way, bringing democracy to less advanced people by force if necessary.
16. What did the politics of exspansionism mean?
Exspansion was tied to politics.
-Whigs welcomed industrialization, but wanted to control the direction it grew in within the country's existing boundaries. They were not as enthusiastic about exspansionism.
- Democrats were fans of exspansion, but feared industrialization would cause economic depression. They wanted to cure national ills by providing new opportunities for trade with Asia.
-Southerners believed exspansion was crucial because they wanted to gain more land.
17. What were the Overland Trails?
Great trails that started at the Missouri River. Went to Oregon, California, and Wyoming. The Mormon Trail was less harsh than the Santa Fe Trail. It was 2,000 miles long, and was a harzardous journey due to the snakes, and to a lesser extent, Indian attacks. The pioneers who traveled these trails were often plagued by disease.
18. What reasons did people have for taking over land trails west?
To escape the malaria-prone Mid-West and the prospect of establish "An Ideal Home" (also a novel by Phoebe Judson). Gave the opportunity to start life over and become prosperous. Land hunger, or the opportunity to own land, was also a valid reason.
19. To what does the term "frontier of inclusion" refer?
It is the name for the first stage of the development of a frontier. It is the interaction and inter-marriage between newcomers and natives.
20. To what does the term "Oregon Fever" refer?
It is the strong, contagious feeling that to gain land and be patriotic in the 1840's, one should move to Oregon.
21. Along with the fur trappers, who were among the earliest white settlers?
Methodist missionary Jason Lee and Father Pierre-Jean de Smet. Also, congregationalists Marcus and Narcissa Whitman, and Franciscan priest, Francis Blanchette.
22. What did President James K. Polk mean by the slogan "Fifty-four Forty or Fight?"
The United State would go to war with Britain if Britain did not hand over the land from Oregon to the Russian-Alaska territory.
23. What were the terms of the Oregon Treaty between the United States and Britain in 1846?
By this time, Polk was more willing to comprimise as he was now more interested in Mexico. The treaty solidified the border between the US and Canada at the 49th parallel, this allowed the straight of Juan de Fuca to be accessed by both countries.
24. What clearly marked the "frontier of exclusion" in Oregon?
The wars with the remaining Indians after the death of the Whitmans in 1847.
25. How did the circumstances under which Americans settled in Texas differ from the circumstances under which they settled elsewhere?
The Mexican government was anxious to get settlers in Texas. Made offer to Moses Austin to give land to settlers in exchange for the settlers conversion to Catholicism and Mexican citizenship.
26. What type of people settled in Stephen F. Austin's colony in Texas?
Stephan Austin hand-picked settlers, mainly southern slave owners. This resulted in there being more Americans and slaves in Texas than Spanish speaking Texans (Tejanos).