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82 Cards in this Set

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A practice in singing in which a solo vocalist is answered by a group of singers. Also heard in instrumental music, or between vocalists ans instrumentalists, the style is vocal in origin.
Call and Response aka Antiphonal Singing
A type of work song in which a solo singer shouts out a melody very loudly so that it is picked up by other workers in far fields. It starts out at a high pitch and descends by the end of the line.
Field Holler
Altered pitch or pitches of a blues scale or song.
Blue notes
Blue note scale degrees
3rd and 7th scale degrees
The simple harmonic progression of church hymns which blues is derived.
I, IV, V
African Historian / Musicians
Jali (p. Jalolu) aka griot
"Father of the Blues"
William Christopher (W.C.) Handy
Form with a basic pulse counted in groups of four with, with four pulses(beats) to each bar.
12-bar blues progression
A melodic and harmonic formula that is played at the end of a larger chord progression to prepare the performers and listeners for another repetition of the progression.
Turnaround
An instrumental embellishment played during breaks (rests) in a vocal melody. A response to a sung call at the end of each sung line.
Fill
Texas Rural Blues traits
>More Clearly Sung Lyrics
>Higher Singing
>More Linear and Melodic Guitar
>Guitar less percussive, more smooth
>Alternating Bass & Treble Playing
>Single String Melody Fills
>Repeated Melodic Riffs on Bass Strings
>Arpeggiated Chords
Blind Lemon Jefferson's protege ("eyes") who later came into his own as a guitarist.
Aaron "T-Bone" Walker
Mississippi Delta Blues traits
>sliding from note to note
>slide guitar
>wailing singing style (forlorn)
>small melodic range
>intricate polyrhythms
>rhythmic fills (rather than melodic)
>percussive playing style
Refers to all music recorded by African-Americans from 1920s-1940s. Usually small indie labels. Called R&B records during late 40s.
Race Records
1st successful "down home" (rural) blues artist.
Blind Lemon Jefferson of the Paramount label.
The Mississippi Delta States
Mississippi, Arkansas, and Tennessee
"Father of the Delta Blues Style"
Charley Patton
Bouncy, long-short rhythm associated with boogie woogie.
Barrelhouse Rhythm. Derived from bars or "barrelhouses".
Two or more rhythms performed simultaneously.
Polyrhythm
Notes that are fingered on the fretboard but lightly picked or dampened.
"ghost" notes
Texas Urban Blues traits
>stronger influence on other blues and jazz than rock
>Generally horns as backup
>Sax as soloing
>Strong piano basis (not guitar)
Chicago Urban Blues traits
>From Mississippi Delta Blues
>Slide Guitar
>Frequent slides between notes
>Frequent use of bent notes
>Double-stopped strings, and bent double-stops
>Intricate rhythm patterns, and polyrhythms
>Single string fills
A jazz piano style that is characterized by a left hand ostinato. Uneven pulses gave a bouncy feel. Popular during the jazz "swing era".
Boogie Woogie. AKA "honky tonk"

Possibly derived from Mandingo word buga: to beat a drum; or slang bogy: dark apparitions, later slang for blacks
Boogie Woogie traits
>8 quick pulses per measure (8 to the bar)
>barrelhouse rhythm (bounced)
>Improvised right hand
>Ostinato left hand
>12-bar blues
>Complex polyrhythm between hands
A motive, phrase or theme that is constantly repeated while other musical elements change; riff
Ostinato
The first beat of a measure. Also the regular accented beats in a4/4 measure, beats 1 and 3.
Downbeat
Placing a strong accent on the offbeats. In a 4-beat measure, the drummer typically emphasizes beats 2 and 4, the basic rhythm for rock.
Backbeat
A derogatory term for country & western music. Initially "old time music"
Hillbilly
Musical ensemble associated with Southern country music, from 1920's.
String Band
Type of bass accompaniment in which the bassist plays the root of the chord on the 1st beat of a measure and the 5th on the 3rd beat of a measure.
Two-beat Bass
String Band characteristics
>Lead Vocalist
>2-4 backup singers
>Fiddles
>Acoustic Guitars
>Acoustic Bass
>Possibly banjos, mandolins
>After 1932 – pedal steel guitar
The three distinct styles of Country after 1920s.
Southern Country
Bluegrass
Southwestern Country Swing
Derived from folk music brought to US by anglo/irish/scottish settlers, 17-18th centuries
Country & Western
Southern Country traits
>Simple melodies (narrow range, uncomplicated surface rhythms)
>Simple harmonic structures
>Simple rhythms, clear meters
>Two-beat bass
>Little instrumental improvisation
>Nasal vocalists, slide from pitch to pitch with voice, use yodeling technique
>Text often about unrequited love, jilted lovers
Mixes elements of Southern country with big band swing
Originated in the Texas string bands, late 1920s – early 1930s
Southwestern Country Swing

aka Western Swing
Southwestern Country Swing traits
Added Drums, Piano, Steel Guitar, (often) horn section.

Improvisation encouraged
Vocalist that sung ballads in jump blues.
Smooch Tenor
Short melodic and/or rhythmic pattern repeated over and over while musical changes take place. Often the harmonic and rhythmic basis of the entire song.
Riff
Use of a metal sleeve or small glass bottle on the chording hand.
Slide Guitar
Note whose pitch is slightly altered by pilling on a string or raising or lowering the voice.
Bent Note
Recording that has been recorded and released after the original version.
Cover records
Jump band singer of fast and party songs. Known for “adult” quality lyrics. Sung raw, rough-edged blues.
Shouter or Screamer
Type of bass line in which each beat of a measure is a different tone.
Walking Bass
First film to use rock 'n' roll in soundtrack.
The Blackboard Jungle
Rock 'n' roll that developed around Memphis, TN in mid 50s.
Rockabilly

aka Memphis Country Rock.
Name from rock 'n' roll and hillbilly.
Playing two strings simultaneously
Double Stop
Pulling the strings on a double bass out away from the fingerboard and letting them snap back against it again which strikes a note and creates a loud click.
Slapped Bass
Peristent Rhythm used by Diddley based on West African rhythm used by shoeshine boys.
Bo Diddley Beat

aka juba rhythm, and hambone rhythm
doo wop progression
I vi IV V (chords built on the marjor tonic, minor submediant [6th scale], major subdominant, and major dominant)
Co-owner and chieef recording engineer of J & M Studio.
Cosimo Matassa
Musician/Producer that discovered Fats Domino
David Bartholomew
Owner of Sun Records
Sam Philips
Recording studio where Memphis Country R&R style developed primarily with figures such as Elvis, Perkins, and Cash
Sun Records
Disc Jockey who coined the term "rock 'n' roll"
Alan Freed
A Rhythm and Blues singer who sung Hound Dog, attracting a young white audience, and was a model for one of Elvis Presley's most famous recordings.
Big Mama Thornton
Elvis' lead guitarist, a frequent visitor to Sun Studios, he accompanied Elvis on the first Presley hit "That's All Right Mama"
Scotty Moore
R&B musician that recorded the "first rock 'n' roll song", Rocket 88.
Jackie Brenston
Owner of the Clovis, NM recording studio where Buddy Holly recorded. He served as his manager and producer with composing credits. Holly left him due to difficulties with this.
Norman Petty
Influencial Memphis Rock musician that composed Blue Suede Shoes, the first rockabilly song to reach the national top ten.
Carl Perkins
Entrepeneur who signed Elvis to a contract giving him composing credit and made him one of the highest-paid entertainers of all time.
Col. Tom Parker
Architect of rockabilly sound that recorded Summertime Blues, an anthem for youth of the R&R generation. Used overdubbing, echo, and doubletracking vocals.
Eddie Cochran
Owners of an important record label of blues and R&R artists such as Muddy Waters, Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley.
Phil and Leonard Chess of Chess Studios
Influential Jewish songwriters that wrote Hound Dog and many other influential songs.
Jerry Leiber & Mike Stoller
Earliest instrumental surf rock group to become popular with Walk, Don't Run. Considered to be the most influential instrumental rock group.
The Ventures
R&B Traits
>Harsher vocal style (shouter)
>More Risque Lyrics
>Loud instruments
>Like jump blues:Vocalist, Piano, Acoustic Bass, Electric guitar, Drums, Tenor Sax
>May also include: Backing vocals, organ, horns
>Emphatic dance rhythms
>Excitement
>Hard-driving rhythms, emphasis on backbeat (beats 2 and 4 in 4/4)
Northern Band Traits
>A steady, mechanical meter
>Fast tempos
>Quick and even surface rhythms
>Staccato guitar chords on the backbeat
>A slapped, walking bassline
>A boogie woogie ostinato (often, not always)
New Orleans Dance Rock n Roll traits
>An overall bass function
>Boogie Woogie barrelhouse rhythm
>The basic beat is often subdivided into three quick pulses (triplet feel)
>Rhythms and meters are looser than the stiff, mechanical meters of Bill Haley
Memphis Country Rock Traits
>Emphasis on backbeat – stiff or even barrelhouse, not loose and let back
>Instrumentation (string bands)
>Strict Rhythm
>Nasal singing style
>Pronunciation (accent)
>Overall treble-dominated sound (twangy
>Stuttering, yelps, cracked falsetto
>Generally fast tempos
>Propelled by slapped bass
>Looser sense of rhythm than Haley, stricter sense of rhythm than New Orleans
>Recorded with natural studio echo

Mostly recorded at SUN STUDIOS
Chicago R&R Traits
>Generally Fast Tempos
>Hard-Driving Beat
>Even Beat Subdivisions – >Barrelhouse sound without bounce.
>Guitar-based bands
>Soloists are guitarists – because band leader is a guitarist
>Instrumentation like R&B band: lead vocal, electric guitar, bass, drums, piano
>May Use horns for background riffing. >Generally no backup singers
Vocal Group Traits
>lead vocalist supported by 3-4 backup
>tight, close harmony
>backup sing nonsense
>instrumentalists deep in background
Carl Perkins Guitar Traits
>Finger picking on electric
>right hand to dampen strings
>string bends
>playing extended chords
>syncopated rhythms
>chord anticipations
Dick Dale Traits
>trebly, tinny guitar tone
>heavy use of reverb
>fast, staccato double picking
>descending chromatic slide
>middle eastern influence
Beach boys traits
>Tightly arranged vocal harmony
>high lead vocals
Instrumental Surf Rock Traits
>Twangy, treble sound
>Heavy use of whammy bar
>strong reverb
>fast double picking
Blind lemon is what type?
Texas rural Blues
Robert Johnsone and Charley Patton are what type?
Mississippi Delta Blues
Muddy Waters is what type?
Chicago Blues
Aaron T-bone Walker is what type?
Texas Urban Blues
Fats Domino, Little Richard are what type?
New Orleans Dance Rock
Elvis, Carl Perkins, Jerry Lee Lewis, Eddie Cochran, Roy Orbison, Gene Vincent, Ricky Nelson are what?
Memphis country rock
Chicago Rock Performers
Bo Diddley, Chuck Berry, Buddy Holly
Vocal Group Performers
Orioles, Franky Lyman and the teenagers, the coasters, marvalettes, shirrelles