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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
o Interest at turn of 20th century—caused by preservationists who feared music would disappear due to increasing urbanization of country
o Used as a tool for political organizations and labor unions
 Wobblies (International workers of the World) used to build morale, recruit new members, stir up publicity
• Published thirty editions of songbooks (IWW Songs: Songs of the Workers to Fan the Flames of Discontent) know as The Little Red Songbook
 “Left Wing folk song conspiracy”- known as because many songs were protest against big business and government policies and used by socialist and communist
• Historical Background of Folk Music:
o Took trips through backwoods of South with portable recording device to preserve folk songs—found many artists including Leadbelly
• John and Alex Lomax: father and son team of musicologists from Library of Congress
o Most important early folk singer
o Tough childhood in lower class in Oklahoma and Texas
 Several tragedies (sister’s death, mother went insane asylum)
 Living on own at 13 singing and playing harmonica for living
Woody Guthrie
o Lifelong crusade to help band the common folk together to fight for their rights through unions and other organizations
o Traveled country hobo style on trains singing songs he wrote
o Style of his songs...
 Dust bowl ballads
 Pro-union songs
 Anti-Hitler songs
 Songs about plight of migrant workers and common people
 Developed unique talking blues style of half singing, half speaking
Woody Guthrie
o Working-class blue jeans and uncombed hair
o Was hero and legend in folk community
Woody Guthrie
o Singer/guitarist, traveled with Guthrie as Almanac Singers at hootenannies and rallies
o Formed Weavers (one of 1st folk groups to break into mainstream visibility)
o Ran into problems when his liberal politics caught attention of FBI and was blacklisted
o Decca dropped Weavers when suspected of Communism
o Toured college campuses as soloist singing political songs
o 1955 Congress had him testify before the House of Un-American Activities Committee
 Refused to cooperate
 Convicted on 10 counts of contempt on Congress
 Got cleared in 1962 went on to be political activist
Pete Seeger
o Wrote some of most important songs of folk movement
Pete Seeger
: folk jam sessions where traditional folk songs are sung
• 1950’s Political Climate for folk Music…
o Witch Hunts- expected of being Soviet spies or Communist sympathizers
o Blacklist- listed possible communist
o HUACC ( House Un-American Activities Committee)
o Forced folk musicians to go underground
o People turned off by vulgarness of R&B and rock and roll
o College students saw as addressed need for positive change in society
o Calypso Fad: folk music of Trinidad
 Different rhythmic quality than traditional American Folk but narrative verse structures and storylines are similar
 Necessary for revival
• 1950’s Folk Revival:
 Calypso hits including “Banana Boat (Day-O)” which started short-lived calypso fad
Harry Belfonte
 Real start to 1950s revival when record “Tom Dooley” became #1
 Named themselves after Jamaican capital city
 Played pop oriented folk music without political protest
 Squeaky clean image (crew cuts and matching clothes)
Kingston Trio
 Beautiful, had angel voice, wore plain peasant clothes
Joan Baez
 Different backgrounds
• Peter was folksinger
• Mary was an off-Broadway singer
• Paul was a comedian
 Became most popular folk group of 1960s
 Wrote “Hammer”-civil rights anthem
 Appeared at numerous protests, rallies, and marches
 Gave boost to early career of Bob Dylan—record 2 of his songs
Peter, Paul and mary
o Coffeehouses, cafes, small clubs all over country began to hire folk performers
o Most important folk scene (was in NY)
o Compact/nourishing scene—everyone supported each other
Greenwich Village scene
o Pete Seeger and 3 other folk musicians published a mimeographed biweekly newsletter
o Showcased no folk and protest songs and provide articles about protests, festivals and recent record releases
o Forum for new generation of folk musicians to get original songs noticed
o Bulletin that promoted progressive causes through music
o 1st published by Seeger and Oscar Brand
Peoples songs
o Dedicated to keeping folksingers and songwriters in touch by publishing left-leaning political songs
Sing Out!
o Influences: Hank Williams, Little Richard, Elvis Presley, Welsh poet Dylan Thomas, beat writers, Woody Guthrie’s Bound for Glory
o Dinkytown (hip bohemian section next to Minnesota campus)- where learned folk music and supplanted his rock and roll learnings
o Characteristics
 Performed in idiosyncratic and sometimes humorous style
 Clipped words, double negatives, non sequiturs (Guthrie’s book)
Bob Dylan
 Moved to NY to meet folk hero Woody Guthrie
• Succeeded in meeting him within a week
• Began writing songs in Guthrie’s talking blues style
 Signed with Columbia
• Big break when NY Times writer gave him glowing review that convinced John Hammond to give him 5 year contract
 Rise to top of folk world
• Known as great writer
• Lyrics made audience ponder
• Refused to go on Ed Sullivan Show-viewed as hero
• Protest songs solidified leadership of folk community
 Met with Beatles
• Influence on Beatles because their lyrics became more socially relevant and political
• Also influenced Dylan along with the Animals because he became more rock music orientated (created folk rock)
Bob Dylan 1961-1964
 1965 Newport Folk Festival
• Most controversial moment
• Performed new electric material with Paul Butterfield Blues Band
o Fans acted angrily (represented capitalism)
o Left stage to audience booing them
• Dylan returned by himself to perform acoustic version got cheered
 Tour with the Hawks (the Band)
• Bob would do solo acoustic set followed by electric set with Hawks
 The Basement Tapes
• New songs with the band
• Fell into hands of bootleggers
 Motorcycle Accident
• Shrouded by mystery
• Moved into Mansion (Hi Lo Ha) in NY
• Allowed him to get away from pressure of being celebrity
Bob dylan 1965-1968
 One of most important/innovative musicians in American history
 Brought to rock the idea lyrics can be poetry, a call to action, political commentary, or personal statement
 Influence on the music of most popular group of 1960s (the Beatles)
 Raw, not particularly good singer or guitar player
• “anybody can be a rock star” ethic
 Brought worlds of folk, country, R&B, and rock together
 Created folk rock and country rock
Dylan Legacy
• Vocal, guitar and harmonica recording done in 2 days
• Assortment of blues and traditional folk songs
• Album sold poorly
 Bob Dylan (Hammond’s Folly)
• Almost entirely all original material written by him
o 1st great anthem “Blowin’ in the Wind”
 Lyrics composed of rhetorical questions
 Peter, Paul and Mary covered
 Put Dylan on the map
• “A Hard Rain’s A Gonna Fall”
o Captured anxieties of era and paint a bleak picture of a post-nuclear holocaust scenario (Cuban Missile Crisis)
 The Freewheelin’ Bob Dylan
• Helped solidify leadership of folk community
• Title song-rallying call to action that addresses different segments of society with each verse
 The Times They Are a Changin’
• Most important album
• Incorporated energy of electric rock
• Side 1: rock rhythm section, side 2: all acoustic
• Combined original, though provoking and poetic lyrics with an electric rhythm and blues sensibility—changed rock forever
• Creation of folk rock
• “Mr. Tambourine Man”
 Bringing It All Back Home
• Country trend
• Voice changed to smoother sort of croon
• Critics complained because country was not “in” with rock
• Created country rock genre
 Nashville Skyline
o English youth absorbed whatever American music they could get hands on
o Post WWII music fads
 Trad jazz: traditional New Orleans jazz
 Skiffle: English adaptation of traditional American jug band music (a do-it-yourself music played by small groups)
• Easy to play
• Encouraged British youths to start playing music (the Beatles)
 Blues and R&B
o Only 3 radio stations run by BBC (nothing close to American R&B)
o Few independent labels willing to rake risks on wannabe pop stars
• Historical Perspective on English pop culture leading to the British Invasion:
 Illegal stations broadcasted from ships
 Largely funded by American record companies
 Made BBC relent and formed pop station Radio One
Pirate Radio stations
o John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, Ringo Starr
o Music spoke of making world better place, challenged us to become better people, made social commentary but provided hope
o Success contributed to good timing (US mourning death of JFK ended)
o Smart, funny, irreverent, idealistic, and eclectic
o Impact on Rock…
 Made rock dominant pop music format that transcended age and demographic
 Changed way music was recorded and presented: studio technology, basic format for music videos, innovative in music packaging
 Transcend generation and era: music still fresh and meaningful, still appeals to all ages
 Combined exceptional songwriting and performing
 Forced recognition of pop music as art
• The Beatles
often wrote together
lennon and mccarthy
complicated rhythmically, simpler melodically, more avant-garde, wrote about himself (asking questions and seeking answers that were both personal, yet could be viewed in larger communal sense as well)
wrote in Brill Building mold, most endearing pop tunes, bring classical music influence, wrote songs about other people pointing out peculiarities of their lives/situations
-best guitarist in 1960s, created some of most melodic and lyrical solos of era, master of studio technology, great songwriter, Indian influence
George Harrison
never competed for competition, played understated but perfect parts, contributed some of most memorable lead vocals
 Guided band in formative early years
 Turned them to possibilities of new instruments and orchestration, studio effects, and technology
George Martin
sponge for pop culture of america
equivalent of America’s “cat” image
• Greased hair up, wore leather jackets, boots, and sneers
Teddy Boy
• Paul McCartney auditioned
• McCartney brought in school friend George Harrison for guitar
• Drummer was Lennon’s friend Pete Best
 John Lennon put together group called Quarry Men (inspired by Elvis)
• Added Stu Sutcliff on bass
• Group played at raunchy clubs in the Reeperbahn section of Hamburg, Germany (8 hours/night)
• Appeared at Cavern Club (played there for 2 ½ years)
group changed name to the beatles
• Manager of nearby NEMS record store became manager
• Changed Teddy boy image to more upscale matching mohair suits with white shirts, thin ties, and mop top haircuts
• Record companies would not take the Beatles
• Contacted George Martin at EMI
Brian Epstein
• Martin decided to sign them but not that impressed with music as their personal charm
 Beatles went to perform at EMI on Abbey Road
• Replaced Best with Richard Starkey (Ringo Starr)
• 10 songs recorded in one 10 hour marathon
• Album called Please, Please Me
o 8 of songs on LP were originals (highly unusual)
o Lennon and McCartney wrote mostly “eyeball to eyeball”
• Help!-first album to signal experimental future of recordings
• Evolved both music and lyrically increasing social political, and cultural significance
• Expand into more musically diverse styles (use of outside session musicians)
• Begin to change rock into an art form
bob dylans influence on beatles
• Exotic instruments, studio effects, and drug allusions
• Songs inspired by book which was a guide to spiritual enlightenment through the use of LSD
 The Psychedelic Experience
• Live concerts plagued by poor sound reinforcement and screaming mobs
• Music too dependent on studio technology to be reproduced adequately in live setting
 Why stopped touring…
• Songs remembrances of real places in Liverpool from John and Paul’s childhood
• Most important album of rock history
• Captivated the world of popular culture
• Intended to give experience of having attended a royal performance
• Rock’s 1st concept album
• Album cover shows celebrities and famous people gathered around Beatles in costume
• 1st album to ever print lyrics on the inside cover
 Cultural Significance of Sgt. Pepper’s
 George Harrison flowering as a songwriter
recorded album
• Died from accidental drug overdose
• Beatles decided to manage themselves (contributed to group’s downfall)
 Impact of Brian Epstein’s Death…
• Lennon and McCartney losing control of song publishing rights
• New music company (Apple) losing money due to mismanagement
• John’s love with Yoko Ono caused tensions
• Ringo quit when discovered Paul was rerecording drum parts
why they broke up
• Solos by John and Paul
• George Harrison organized 1st all-star concert to raise money for a cause
• Lennon murdered by crazed fan
 Remembrances of real places in Liverpool from John and Paul’s childhoods
 Supposed to included on Sgt. Pepper’s album
 Released as 2 singles to silence critics about rumors of band break up
o Significance of “Penny Lane” and “Strawberry Fields Forever”
o Significance of “Penny Lane” and “Strawberry Fields Forever”
o George Martin
• “coming of age” album
• Released December 3, 1965
• 14 songs written over 4 week period
• Songs about social issues
• More lyrical depth and intelligence
• Introduced variety of new instruments
 Rubber Soul
• Released August 5, 1966
• Many called finest work
• 1st album of psychedelic era
• Uses exotic instruments, studio effects, drug allusions
• No “fillers”
 Revolver
• Released June 1, 1967
• Most important album in rock history
• Alter ego band
• Experience of royal performance
• Each song segueing into the next
• Rock’s 1st concept album
• Most famous music album cover in history
• Stunning use of studio technology
 Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band
• Released November 22nd, 1968
• Wide range of styles
• Many songs recorded without the full group in attendance
• Some of group’s best material
 The Beatles (the White Album)
• Released September 26, 1969
• Last album recorded by Beatles
• Perhaps finest work
• Studio installed new eight-track recorder
• Synthesizers used
 Abbey Road
• Not released until May 8, 1970 after Beatles broke up
• Originally planned as a no overdubs, back-to-life concept
• Staged surprise concert to get truly live recordings only performed 5 songs before police shut them down because complaints
• George Martin quit
• Resulting mixes were sloppy with too many mistakes
• Phil Spector brought in to re-produce added lush orchestration
 Let It Be
 The general career path of the band up until 1972: “anti-Beatles” image, bold/sexual on stage image (Mick Jagger), took name from Muddy Waters tune, signed with Decca, reputation as rock and rolls
Rolling Stones
 Contributions and characteristics of: rolling stones
o Mick Jagger: on stage sex appeal, wrote lyrics,
o Keith Richards: wrote music, high-energy guitar riffs
o Brian Jones: guitarist, left because Richards and Jagger took over artistic control of band
 The traumatic events the band endured during the 60s (the death of Brian Jones, Altamont, etc)
o Richards and Jagger arrested for drugs, Jones arrested for coke
 Made touring impossible
o Brian Jones left group to clean himself up from drugs, found dead in swimming pool due to “death by misadventure”
o Altamont: “thank you America” concert, Hell’s Angels hired for protection (paid in beer)
 Stage inadequate (along with restrooms)
 Member of Hell’s Angels stabbed fan
 Chaos and violence made Stones leave by helicopter
discoverd rolling stones gave them "anti-beatle"
Andrew Loog Oldham
gave a tighter, more focused sound
Jimmy Miller
cover of Sticky Fingers
 Picture of zipper of man’s jeans
Andy Warhol
influenced by Beatle’s experimentation, mixed blues, country, psychedelia, and boogie-woogie influences, introduced new instruments like the sitar, marimba, and dulcimer, dark tone. stones
patterned after Beatle’s Sgt. Pepper, psychedelic (most creative period). stones
 Their Satanic Majesties Request
two of Stones most memborable anthems “Sympathy for the Devil” (commentary on dark side of society’s soul) and “Street Fighting Man” (student protest). stones
Beggars Banquet
recorded in Muscle Shoals, critics thought one of best albums, cover of album drew a lot of attention (zipper of man’s jeans), introduced for 1st time the famous tongue and lips logo. stones
Sticky Fingers
 Prototype of the “power trio” format
 Bass and drums exploding in flurry of notes
 Vocals with big attitude
 Guitar power chords holding it all together
The Who
 1st rock band to incorporate synthesizers into compositional process rather than just as an added-on effect
 Songs with social relevance
 Music relied on musicianship of all 4 members
 Masculine attitude (“guys band”)
The Who
The WHo's career path
 Mods: youth cult that wore snappy clothes, short hair, road scooters and consumed massive amounts of ampthetamines (allowed them to dance all night at raves)
 Manager Pete Meaden changed name to High Numbers to identify with scene
 Kit Lambert and Chris Stamp took over band after Meaden
 Turned name back to The Who
 New motto: Maximum R&B—introduced famous arrow emerging from o (forms medical symbol for male)
 Brought stage violence and drama to rock
 Clashing band personalities
 Originally R&B cover band called Detours
 Stage violence started when Townshend accidently broke guitar on club ceiling, picked up and acted like part of act
 Townshend and Daltrey battled over control of the band
Who's influence
 Inspirational to several later rock styles including:
 Punk
 Heavy metal: “I Can See for Miles”- predecessor
 Art rock
 connected with disaffected teen nation
Pete Townshend
Pete townsend influences
 Meher Baba: Indian guru
• Stopped taking drugs
• Define new spirituality through music
o Tell story of spiritual enlightenment through lyrics (rock opera)
 Terry Reilly: minimalist composer
pete townsend innovation
 use of synthesizers to compose music
 Made into feature film and Broadway musical
 Boy loses all sensory skills-superior pinball skills
 Turned into film and Broadway musical. who
 Tommy: 1st rock opera
 Songs from Lifehouse film by Townshend
 “Baba O’Reilly” (named for Meher Baba and Terry O’Reilly)
. who
 Who’s Next:
Signed by Brian Epstein and George Martin (like Beatles)
Skiffle band
Gerryt and the pacemakers
Sound was precursor to the Byrds (tight, four party harmony, chiming guitars) “Love Potion #9”
Gerry and the pacemakers
Epstein/Martin group
Kramer 1950s pub-crooner style more than rock singer
Billy J. Kramer and the Dakotas:
Cute and cuddly band like the Beatles (went toe to toe with record sales with them)
Hermans Hermits
Buddy Holly nerdish looks, started out playing skiffle
Freddie and the dreamers
Led by Graham Nash, best known for Everlly Brothers-influenced harmonies and jangly guiatars
The Hollies
“You Really Got Me”- band’s sound heavily based on blues distorted power chords (predecesors of hard rock and heavy metal)
the kinks
3 legendary lead guitarists (Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, Jimmy Page)-moved from pop to psychedelic – Page later formed Led Zeppelin
the yardbirds
Bob Dylan was huge influence “House of the Rising Sun”
bob dylan