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63 Cards in this Set

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Bell Magendie
- Sensory nerves enter dorsal roots of spinal cords and motor nerves emerge from entral roots
- Nerve physiology = sensory and motor functions
- Metal functions are mediated by different anatomical structures.
Separate and Different Functions
different things going on in the body lead to different thoughts.
Broca
"Clinical setting"
language and communication function
Broca Area left hemisphere
Expressive Aphasia
Speech, articulation, production
Helmholtz
- "life force" not conducive to scientific analysis
- Physical and chemical processes
- "Energy is never or lost, it is meerly transformed."
- Theory of Perceptions
Study frog reaction nerve conduction.
Theory of color vision:
Resonance place theory:
Ebbinghaus
- Used nonsense syllables
- Over-learning decrease rate of forgetting
- Practive over a period of time
Titchner: career, consciousness
Structuralism

determination of the what, how, and why of mental life

Three Elements of the mind
- Sensations
- Images
- Affections
Wundt: Voluntarism, experiments, volition
1st school of psychology
- sensations and perceptions

introspection

experimental psychology
-used to study the basic processes of the mind

Disagreed with Galileo, Comte, Kant
Theory of Feelings
Plesantness and unplesantness
excitment and calmness
strain and relaxation
Edward C. Tolman
Purposive behaviorism, intervening variables,
Latent Learning, Latent Extinction
Disagreed with Watson and Thorndicke's explanation of learning.
Latent Learning
Learning that occurs but is not translated into behavior
Latent Extinction
Animals who passively experience a goal boz no longer containing reinforcement, extinguish a previously learded response to that goal box significantly faster than animals without suh experience.
Hull
4 methods for scientific research,
-Reinforcement,
-Reaction potential,
-Habit Strength,
-Theory with great amount of research.

hypothetico-deductive theory to explain learning phenomenon
4 methods for scientific research: (Hull)
- Simple observation
- Systematic controlled obsercation
- Experimental testing of hypotheses
- Hypothetico-Deductive Theory
Yerkes
Psychology could help in the war effort.
Creating tests that could be used to place recruits according to their abilities.
It was a waste of time.
Goddard's studies
studied: relationship between family background and intelligence.
intellicutal genetics
"The Mental deficient should be sterilized from the rest."
Binet and intelligence,
Used different method of test, could not be replicated and took to long
Found low inter-correlations
Wissler
Mental Test, low on Correlation
Galton and intelligence, word associations
Mental Inheritance: greatness comes with the family.
-Eugenics
-Intelligence Tests for men and women to breed
Nature vs. Nuture (twins)
Darwin and evolution, human emotions
Theory of Evolution
Humans are primate ancestors
Human emotions are remains of animals
- Studying nonhuman animals
Developmental psychology kids
Mental Orthopedics
Exercises that improced child's will, attention, and discipline
Functionalism
- How the mind functions.
- 1st American System of psychology
- Cannot ask about how the mind works.
- Apply psychology to everyday problems.
(Darwin & Galton)
Lewin and Types of conflict
Followed Aristotle and Galileo
- Life Space
(Influences of psychological facts, external events, exist in awarness)

Motivation

Types of Conflict
- Approach-Approach
- Avoidance-avoidance
- Approach-avoidance
"A person's life space consists of all influences acting on him or her at a given time. "
Wertheimer: phi phenomenon
Illusion that light is moving from one location to another.

Caused by flashing two lights on and off at a certain rate.
Gestalt principles
1. Field Theory
2. Psychophysical Isomorphism
3. Top Down Analysis
4. Law of Pragnanz
5. Perceptual Constancy
6. Principles of Perceptual Organization
Voluntarism
(Wundt)
will and choice
understand simple and complex events
- all types of events - based on experience

TWO TYPES of Experience:
Mediate
Immediate
Dewey
Developed Functionalism.
Clark
Negative effects of segregation of children.
Ended the legal basis for segregated education in the U.S
*1st Afriecan American President of APA*
Sumner
1st African American to have a PhD in psychology.
Munsterberg: ideas and behavior
Applied Psychology
**Clinical, forensic, and industrial psychology**
William James: consciousness, self esteem
Opposed Gestalt Psych
Opposed dividing consciousness into elements.
"Consciousness is to be viewed as a totality with a purpose."
(Gestalt) Principles of Perceptual Organization
- Figure-Ground
- Continuity
- Proximity
- Inclusiceness
- Similarity
- Closure
Approach-Approach Conflict
The type of conflict that occurs when a person is attracted to two goals at the same time.
A student getting accepted to two favorite colleges
Avoidance-avoidance
Conflict
The type of conflict that occurs when a person is repelled to two goals at the same time.
Lesser of the two evils.
Approach-avoidance Conflict
The type of conflict that occurs when a person is both attracted to and repelled by the same goal at the same time.
Gestalt Psychology
German Word meaning "Whole" or "Form"
- Studies whole, inctact segments of behavior and cognitive experience
- Issues with Wundt's elementism
H20
Group Dynamics - Application of the Theory
- Democratic
- Authoritarian
- Laissez- Faire
Neobehaviorism
result of when behaviorism was combined **with logical positivsm. **
Hypothetico-deductive Theory
(Hull)
Set of potulates from which empirical relationships are deduced. If the empirical relationships are as predicted, the theory gains strngth; if not, the theory loses strength and must be revised or abandoned.
Drive-reduction
(Hull)
Hull's proposed mechanism of reinforcement. Anything that reduces a drive is reinforcing.
2 types of Behavior
- Respondent Behavior
- Operant Behavior
Operant Behavior
Influenced by consequences.
Behavior that is emitted by an organism rather than elicted by a known stimulus.
Oper, opertional. Doing things for a child to operate the way u want.
Positive Reinforcement
Introducing something "added"
Negative Reinforcement
Taking away something
Wernicke's area
portion near Broca's area left temporal lobe area responsible for speech comprehension
Ernst Weber
2 point threshold on all different areas of the body

Smallest threshold on tongue
largest in the middle of back
Weber's Law
Amount of change to notice a difference is a constant fraction relating to the stimuli

*1st quantitative law in psychology*
sense of touch is several senses
Stumpf
acoustical perceptions

Meningful mental experiences instead of mental elements
Physiology
study of functioning of living things
Psychology
study of human mind
Perception
Mental experience that occurs when sensations are given meaning by the memory of past experiences.
Apperception
comprehension using past experiences
Spencer: Survival of the Fittest
"Darwinism"
Laissez-faire, able can previal
Thorndike
Studied trial and error using Cats
"Learning is incremental"
"Learning is automatic"
"Learning applies to all mamals"
Thorndike's Law
Law of exercise
Law of use
Law of disuse
law of effect
Eugenics
Selective Breeding
Correlation
Systematic variation between two variables
Mediate Experience
Eperience that is provided by various measuring devices
Immediate
Direct subjective experience as it occurs
Pavlov
Experiements w/ dogs
Classical Conditioning
Watson
Treat kids like adults
Contiguity
UCS (Unconditioned Stimulus)
Food, the thing that is going to start a reaction
UCR (Unconditioned Response)
Salivate, The action that is going to be caused
CS (Conditioned Stimulus)
Bell, The thing that has been conditioned
CR (Conditioned Response)
Salivate, the end result action
NS (Nuetral Stimulus)
Bell, Something that is about to be conditioned