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122 Cards in this Set

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What were Plato’s 4 Contributions?
• The Forms.
• The Whole of Reality.
• The Allegory of the Cave, explanation of the forms.
• The Platonic Self/Soul.
Explain Plato's forms?
• Forms are eternal, changeless, and incorporeal.
• We know them only through thought.
• A form is not within a thing but a thing comes or is an instance of a form (difference from Aristotle) -- e.g., what makes a pious act pious and a pair of equal sticks equal are the Forms Piety and Equality.
• Words refer to forms, despite the fact that
forms are radically different from the objects revealed through our senses (difference from Aristotle).
What is Plato's notion of The Whole of Reality?
• Thought and Knowledge in Changeless Realm of the Forms
• Sensation and Belief in Changing Realm of Sensible Things
What is Plato's notion of The Platonic Self/Soul? Delphi Dictum?
• Socrates’ “Delphi Dictum”: Know Thyself (Know your place in the scheme of things).
• Selves are souls (permanent/eternal parts of a wider cosmic totality – fatalism). Reincarnation!
• Knowledge is innate as in tied to our soul in reincarnation and our job is to awaken this knowledge.
What is Aristotle's notion of Essential Naturalism? How he felt about Plato's dual-world approach, where does his idea of naturalism fall, what are form, how do we understand things?
• Rejected Plato’s dual-world approach.
• a middle way between Plato’s idealism (mysticism?) of forms, and the atomistic reductionism.
• Forms and matter are interwoven, Form cannot exist a part from matter. Actually and potentially.
• We humans want to understand things.
• Understand things by define, study, and classify things as they are in nature.
What is Aristotle's notion of The Scala Naturae?
Measure of the degree of perfection of each creature and they are ordered hierarchically. From plants (growth) to animals (sense) to humans (reason) [Note: Not an evolutionary theory, but an essentialist one.]
What is Aristotle's notion of Potentiality versus Actuality?
Substance has potential to take on different forms. Actuality of what substance become depends on form it takes.
What is Aristotle's notion of Action versus Motion?
Action requires reasons for behaving. Motion can be explained in mechanical way.
What is Aristotle's notion of a syllogism?
Two premises and a conclusion that necessarily follows from the two premises.
If cats are dog,
and dogs are big,
then cats are big.
Aristotle’s Explanation of
Change: The “Aition”?
Four causes explain change:
Material (concerns the relevant matter).
Efficient (concerns specific origin).
Formal (concerns the relevant form).
Final (concerns the final purpose).
Aristotle’s Theory of Memory?
• Memory is the process of reviving previous experience based on:
• Association by similarity
• Association by contrast
• Association by contiguity (reminded of something because it was experienced together with whatever currently experiencing).
• Mnemonics (e.g., peg-word method, method of loci)
What is Aristotle's notion of Theoretical, Practical, and Productive Intelligence?
Theoretical: what people now think of intelligence, understand things like math and science.
Practical: choose a wise choice of action.
Productive: able to make things e.g. art.
The Long-term Consequences
of the Reality Debate for
Psychology of Plato and Aristotle?
• Nature versus culture.
• Process versus structure.
• The particular (individual case) versus the general.
• Pure (brute) observation versus theory driven observation.
Descartes- The Primacy of Thought -- Method of Radical Doubt, and “Cogito, ergo sum”?
Primacy of thought, way to know about reality through thought. Do so with doubt. He doubted everything except, there are thoughts, therefore I am.
Descartes Mind/Body Dualism?
Mind comes from God, body a machine. Interact (interactionism) via Pineal gland. Mind is in the body like a “ghost in a machine.”
Descartes Criteria for Truth -- Clarity, Distinctiveness, and
Causal Chain (all in mind)?
Lower in chain can't cause higher up, but higher up can cause lower e.g. God caused us.
Descartes Mechanistic Account of Body?
Body can be explained scientifically, Aristotelian.
What is British Empiricism? Who were they?
• Significant influence on Western psychology
• Truth not in mind and reason, but in the senses.
• John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume all were empiricists, but held rather different ideas about the implications of empiricism.
John Locke, view of Descartes, what are ways we get ideas, notice 2 qualities?
• Opposed Descartes rationalism -- learn through experience.
• Mind actively forms complex ideas from 2 sources: Sensation -- input from the senses. Reflection -- thinking, believing etc.
• 2 qualities have power to produce any idea in our mind. Primary (in objects, e.g., shape) versus Secondary (produced in mind, but not actually in objects, e.g., colour) Qualities.
George Berkeley, Can we know anything for sure, Esse est Percipi, Theory of Distance Perception?
• If all knowledge comes from experiences (senses
or reflection). Nothing is real a part from our perception of it.
• Esse est Percipi (To be is to be perceived or what is real for us only what we experience)
• Theory of Distance Perception e.g. size constancy is remembering how far we had to travel to get that far away and thus something we must learn.
What diff between rationalism and empiricism?
Rationalism (Descartes): know truth through clear distinct reason, true premises conclusion true.
Empiricism: only trust evidence from our senses to know truth.
What is David Hume? What 2 things did it attack? How is half is notion similar to part of Kant and Gestalt theory?
• Skeptical Empiricism
• Causes: don't actually exist. No necessary connection between two events. We experience causality as result of association.
Self: doesn't actually exist. • Nothing uniquely corresponds to the self all we really possess is a series of impressions of one sort or another.
John Stuart Mill’s Generative Empiricism?
Possibility that complex ideas can be generated by simpler ideas without necessarily consisting of them -- we can generate things new from putting together parts e.g. like H20, can't understand water by breaking h 2 0 a part because they become something different. (“mental chemistry”?) -- an early
formulation of “emergentism”
Kant’s Transcendental Rationalism? Can we know the world?
• Cannot know world exactly as it is (no a priori knowledge), mind equipped with rational resources (intuitions and categories) that order experience. Resources of mind transcend experience, they make experience possible.
Kant’s Two-World Metaphysics?
• Experience provides content without form. Reason supplies from without content. Only in their synthesis is knowledge possible.
• Describing experience is referring to an ordered perspective on an independent world.
How did Descartes, Locke, and Kant see psychology?
• Descartes- rational system that incorporates doubt, ordered systematic observation, and interpretation of a knowable world.
• Locke- empirically based knowledge and guaranteed by the senses.
• Kant- systematic reasoning about mindladen experience. External world can be organized mathematically because spatially ordered. Psychological experience is temporally ordered and interior, prevents such
scientific, mathematical description and organization.
Is psychology Ixion's Wheel or Jacob's Ladder?
Both, sometimes cyclical where idea is forgotten then comes back as refreshing (but better understood as a spiral, understood in new light not exactly the same). Other times can be progressive.
Brief History of Individuality?
• Western individuality traced to emergence of private property (end of serfdoom around 1250)
• Paintings/sculptures/scores began to be “signed,” self-portraits (paintings) became in vogue...
• The age of Reason (with a Reasoner) in Locke, etc.
• 1700 to 1800 -- Popularizing of philosophy and science (challenge to clergy), encyclopedia.
• 1800 to 1900 -- Industrialization and Science, new forms selfhood.
What is Johann Friedrich Herbart’s Mathematical Psychology? How did he see mental life? What was an example of a mathematical psychology?
• Challenged Kant’s belief - psychological phenomena could not be captured mathematically. First mathematical Psychologist.
• Treated mental life as an inner landscape - ideas are forces in actions and interactions, inhibiting and/or facilitating each other in this landscape.
• One idea can be stronger than another and inhibits the weaker one. Mathematical equation for this.
What is Johann Friedrich Herbart’s educational psychology consist of. How is it related to the apperceptive mass?
• To learn must associate ideas into existing apperceptive masses. Do this via “five step process”:
preparation: show what is to come.
presentation: explain idea.
association: new idea in context of old ideas.
generalization: organizate idea.
application: use or apply new idea.
What is Johann Friedrich Herbart’s Mental Model consist of? What is the threshold of consciousness? What is an apperceptive mass?
-At any time ideas can movie in and out of consciousness through this threshold of consciousness.
-To learn ideas must associate them into an apperceptive mass (a bundle of ideas).
What is Gustav Theodor Fechner’s Psychophysics? When was he around and how did he contribute to psychology? Inner Psychophysical parallelism? outer psychophysics?
• 19th century, helping to create psychology into a science.
• Psychophysical parallelism (between body and mind), all things in mind must have physical parallel. Figure out one can figure out another.
• Relations among the brain, experience, and the external world could be expressed mathematically e.g. Just Noticeable Difference: change that is just noticeable to person.
What is Gustav Theodor Fechner’s Aesthetics “From Below”?
• Increased beauty judged in things that are measured with certain proportion e.g. Golden section.
Francis Galton's Eugenics?
• Eminence and intelligence, like height, were inherited to a significant degree (Galton’s Law). But mitigated by “regression toward the mean”.
• “the study of the agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations, either physically or mentally.” The study of selective breeding to create a super race.
Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism?
• Application of evolutionary principles to society.
Critical Considerations of Nineteenth Century Mathematical, Scientific Psychology?
• Objections to mental ideas and forces as actually in the head and tangible.
• The quantity objection: no evidence that ideas are stronger or weaker.
• Concerns about reducing the richness of human experience via reductionism.
• Naturalistic assumptions for people who are gifted.
• Ethical concerns with inheritance, what do with people who are less smart.
What is Wilhelm Wundt famous for?
• The founder of psychology as an independent discipline and institution.
• Created the first academically recognized laboratory in psychology at
Leipzig.
Wundt’s Experimental
Psychology? What method? Who performed the method? How conducted? Using what? What is experience? What about feelings?
• Introspective reports of inner experiences/perceptions of own basic mental processes.
• Wundt himself or he supervised his assistants (leads to bias).
• strictly controlled conditions -- usually simple situations involving the presentation of a single, objective stimulus.
• Experiments often with an apparatus (e.g., a metronome).
• Experiences become
unified wholes (not simply sums of individual impressions).
• Feelings were important aspects of our basic experiences.
Wundt’s Tridimensional Theory of Feeling?
All feelings can be explained on 3 axes.
• Pleasure, Unpleasant.
• Tense, Relaxed.
• Depressed Excited.
Wundt’s Psychophysical Parallelism?
• Mind and body(nervous system)/brain processes run in parallel.
• Gives psychology a subject matter since physical laws can't explain non-physcial mind. Need Psychology.
Wundt’s Völkerpsychologie (Cultural Psychology)? How does mind develop?
• Must study the mind from within a culture. A culture imprints itself on the mind.
• Mind starts as a whole with culture and then must differentiate itself out e.g. Maxi task know wheat everyone knows and then realize not so.
Wundt’s Theory of Language Production and Understanding?
In speaking, overall impression or general idea is divided into its component parts; in understanding, this process is reversed.
Wundt was to German psychology as...?
William James was to American psychology.
William James Big Ideas? Similar to who? What? Dangers of second one? What is the mind and was he dualist? What did he endorse?
• (Aristotle) Habit. Plasticity: the ability of an organism to alter its behviours. Habits can be useful as a foundation for life and intellectual pursuit.
• (Wundt) Introspection: following the flow or stream of consciousness (note here, James’ talent for metaphor).
• Dangers of introspection: “the psychologist’s fallacy.”
• Minds are natural objects in the natural world, tentative about exactly how consciousness and brain are connected.
• Endorsed hypothesis
testing in psychology.
William James The Stream of Consciousness composed of five things?
Five characteristics:
• 1. Every thought is personal.
• 2. Within personal consciousness, change is constant (no exact reoccurrence of experience).
• 3. Within each personal consciousness, thought is
sensibly continuous and indivisible.
• 4. Consciousness is intentional in the sense of
always seeming to be about objects independent of
itself (the “aboutness” also noted by Franz Brentano).
• 5. Consciousness is selective and related to our
interests and selves.
The (william) Jamesian Self? Has 2 parts? One of them consists of 3 parts?
Two parts
• The “I” (self as subject: knower)
-The “I” is pure ego (that which Hume doubted, and about which James says is beyond the reaches of empirical observation).
• The “Me” (self as object: known)
-The “Me” is an empirical self consisting of three parts:
– 1. The Material Self: all that is mine.
– 2. The Social Self: the self (selves) that are known to others, and become known to us through others.
– 3. The Spiritual Self: one’s inner, conscious experiences that one knows as one’ own e.g., selfesteem=success/pretentions.
The James-Lange Theory of
Emotions?
• An emotion without bodily
sensations is not an emotion of the kind that matters to us. Emotional experience is holistic.
• Meaning bodily sensations are necessary for emotions but not sufficient!
Mary Whiton Calkins? How was she treated? Whats her Experimental
Psychology?
• Women had not rights, couldn't get a degree.
• Paired association method used to study repetition or frequency on strength of memory or verbal association.
What is The Unconscious? To Freud, to Jung? Psychoanalysis? Analytical/archetypal psychology?
• Unconscious:
>Freud - the part of the mind housing those psychic processes of which a person is not aware but which have a powerful effect on his or her attitudes and/or behaviour.
>Jung - (difference between collective and personal what Freud had in mind) Collective is a universal psychological content possessed by the species as a whole, of which an individual has no direct knowledge.
• Freud's Psychoanalysis: a therapeutic theory and method which the role of unconscious processes is examined
with goal curing the patient from pathological symptoms from by various unconscious desires.
• Jung's Analytical/archetypal psychology: a psychology investigating and integrating opposing parts of the personality (including archetypal components) into a coherent whole.
Traditions Influencing Freud? Whose concepts? Animal gravitation? Animal magnetism? Mesmerism?
The Ideas and Methods of Anton Mesmer:
>animal gravitation: (Mesmer) refers to force through which planetary bodies influence human behaviour.
>animal magnetism: (Mesmer) describes a force evenly distributed throughout bodies of healthy people, and unevenly distributed throughout bodies of unhealthy people, causing a variety of symptoms
>hypnosis: induction of a trance-like state of consciousness like sleep. Heightened susceptibility to suggestion; formerly called mesmerism.
How did Ernst Brücke influence Freud? What was the problem with this?
>Create a scientific psychology.
>So hard to test unconsciousness, not supporting wish to make scientific psychology. So hard to test unconsciousness expressing self in dream.
What is hysteria?
>Describes any illness where sensory or motor dysfunction, such as lack of sensation in a limb or impaired vision or hearing, but for which there appears to be NO physical cause.
What is malingering?
>A feigned illness or incapacity.
What dies suggestible mean?
The characteristic of being easily hypnotizable and
easily influenced by the suggestions of others.
Joseph Breuer (1842-1925)—the case of “Anna O”?
>Breuer was a prominent physician who treated a women
suffering from severe hysteria.
>“Anna O” (Bertha Pappenheim) developed symptoms (paralysis arm) while taking care of dying father.
>Breuer treated “Anna O” with “talk of symptoms” under
hypnosis (cathartic expression of pent-up emotion).
>“Anna O” developed “attachment” to Breuer, who ended their professional acquaintance (at his wife’s urging).
>Bertha Pappenheim, after one or two relapses, went on to
become the founder of social work in Germany.
What is Freud's notion of repression?
The holding of traumatic thoughts or memories in the unconscious mind because pondering them would cause undue anxiety.
What is Freud's cathartic method?
The alleviation of hysterical
symptoms by allowing pathogenic ideas to be expressed consciously; emotional purging.
What did Freud replace hypnosis with?
Free association: studying the contents of the unconscious. Express freely everything and anything that comes to mind. Link between unconscious and conscious which can then be helped through cathartic method.
What is The Seduction Hypothesis? What did Freud replace it with?
>The root of hysteria is sexual abuse.
>Hysterical patients were actually repressing infantile sexual fantasies, and not memories of sexual abuse.
Freud distinguished three psychic states?
>conscious: those things of which one is aware at any given moment, e.g., "I'm tired".
>preconscious: those things of which we are not currently aware, but of which we could easily become aware.
>unconscious: consists of those memories and thoughts which are being actively repressed, or held from consciousness, and can, therefore, only be made conscious with great effort.
Freud believed that the personality is structured in terms of three parts?
Id, Ego, Superego.
What is the Id? Which principle is it governed by? What are the two means of satisfying a need? What are the activities of the id?
Id: entirely unconscious part of the personality; contains all the instincts, including hunger, thirst, and sex.
Motivational forces underlying personality.
>Governed by the
pleasure principle: any need or desire seeks to be immediately satisfied irregardless of the consequences.
>Reflex action: is automatically triggered when the discomfort created by the need arises.
>Wish fulfillment: the id conjures up an image of an object that will satisfy existing need.
>Primary processes: irrational, totally unconscious, and determined by needs.
What is the Ego? Which principle is it governed by? What is Cathexis and Countercathexis? What are the activities of the Ego?
Ego: part of person that is aware of both the id and superego. Major role is mediation;
>Reality principle: provides real as opposed to imaginary satisfaction of a need.
>Cathexis: investment of physic energy in thoughts
that can satisfy a person's needs and desires.
>countercathexis: one gives up such investments of psychic energy.
>secondary processes: ways of getting what id wants that are socially excepted.
What is the superego? Has two divisions?
>Superego: “the over I”; social/moral component of the personality. Guides the individual to the "rightness" or "wrongness" of certain behaviours.
>The conscience— internalized experiences for which the child has been consistently punished.
>The ego-ideal—the internalized experiences for which the child has been rewarded.
Psychosexual Stages of Development? Erogenous zone? Fixation? What are the 5 stages? What are each ones erogenous zones and what happens when fixation occurs?
>The area of body during a stage of psychosexual development which libidinal energy is concentrated.
>Person is not able to move on from a given stage of psychosexual development. Dues to over-gratification
or under-gratification of
erogenous zone at that stage.
>The Oral Stage:
-the mouth, excessive eating, drinking...
>The Anal Stage:
-the anus, either generous, messy, tide...
>The Phallic Stage:
-the genital region, boys suffer from Oedipus complex and castration anxiety, and girls from electra complex and penis envy.
>The Latency Stage:
-none, intense repression and into work.
>The Genital Stage:
-manifestation of sexual desires, regression can occur.
Freud’s Dream Analysis? Manifest content and latent content? Dream work? What are two processes of dream work?
>manifest content: what a dream appears to be about on the surface.
>latent content: what a dream is really about.
>dream work: mechanism that distorts the meaning of a dream. Making it tolerable. >Disguises the wish by:
-condensation: single dream symbolizes many things in waking life.
-Displacement: dream of symbol instead of anxiety provoking thing.
What are some of Carl Gustav Jung's ideas. Bipolar? Goal? Psychic structures? Where does it reside? The four functions?
• Bipolar distinctions underlie psychological processes, can move in opposing directions.
• Balance oppositional
psychological processes and archetypes to attain a wholeness.
• Mind is equipped at birth with archetypal predispositions (innate organizational tendencies) to perceive, feel, and act in
particular ways.
• The archetypes reside in the collective unconscious and are universal.
• Psychological processes: introversion-extroversion; perception (through the functions of sensation or intuition) and judgment (through the functions of thinking or feeling); sensation and intuition; thinking and feeling.
The general ideas of psychic structures of Jung and Freud? Functions of Jung and Freud?
>Jung: archetypal.
>Freud: id/ego/superego or conscious/preconscious/unconscious.
>Jung’s four functions.
>Freuds’ defence mechanisms.
Edward B. Titchener's introspection? What was it in response too? How does it compare to Wundt's introspection?
• Introspection: individuals describe their experiences because belief that every has different points of view but we will find through this that Ppl have SAME mental structures.
• Rejected unconscious, introspection was way to get at unconscious.
• More complicated than Wundt's. Had complicated retrospective analyses.
Titchener’s Structuralism?
• Psychological parallelism.
• Uncover the structure of the mind.
Qualitative: sensations, images, and affection (pleasant-unpleasant) as the primary elementary mental processes that underlie all our perception and experience.
Quantitative: similar to Fichner.
Titchener’s Experimental Psychology? How similar to Wundt? How diff?
• A proper experiment consists of “an introspection or series of introspections made under
standard conditions.”
• Avoid stimulus error (Describing objects rather than one’s experience of them) wants explanation of experience!!
• More complicated, involved retrospective reports.
What is Titchener’s Dimensionality of Consciousness? How many dimension and what are they?
• Mental structural world is paralleled to physicists time, space, and mass.
• 4 dimensions:
>Quality (variation in basic expeinces)
>Intensity (strength)
>Extensity (range)
>Protensity (duration)
What led to the Demise of Structuralism? Introspection? Differences? Academic?
• Introspection had diff results in diff laboratories.
• Ignoring individual differences was unwarranted.
• It all seemed too academic and without realworld relevance.
What is Functionalism? How diff then structuralism? Why is it a distinct American Psychology? What does it focus on? Who was early form influenced by?
• Functionalism not like structuralism or psychoanalysis, many variants, is relatively open to other views, and is rather loosely organized.
• Distinctively American psychology because of eclectic and pragmatic character.
• Focuses on the adaptation of organisms to their environments in practical an scholarly knowledge.
• Early forms of functionalism were influenced by W. James’ open-minded attitude to psychology.
John Dewey’s Functionalism? What did he criticize? What notion of S and R did he have? What was it?
• Criticized single response to a static stimulus.
• Teleological notion of actions and stimuli.
• Human purposeful activity select stimulus and interact with tailored responses, leads to further cycles till goal is complete.
Symbol S and R in a circle.
Dewey’s Pragmatism and Educational Psychology?
• Integrate knowledge into current experience toward pragmatic ends.
• Start education where child is e.g. numbers, then math, then algebra. Integrate in and bring forward to telos or goal.
James R. Angell’s Functionalist Advocate? What was this, who influenced it?
• Advocate of Darwin.
• Understand consciousness through evolution (funtionalist approach).
• We learned to work together through evolution.
Robert W. Woodworth’s S-O-R Framework?
• In his S-O-R/W-O-W (O-W-O) psychology, the main aim was to find out what occurred at O (the level of the organism) in constantly restructuring relations between the organism and its world.
How does functionalism relate to Intelligence Testing? What is idea behind of intelligence testing?
• Functionalism emphasized applied psychology which led to intelligence testing.
• Intelligence = adaptability to our environment.
• To see our IQ need to know how we have adapted to environment, school knowledge.
Comparative Psychology contribute to functionalism? When did it reach its peek?
• Understand the evolution of behavior through comparisons across different species.
• In the work of Edward L.
Thorndike.
What were Edward L. Thorndike' Puzzle boxes? How did Thorndike explain the cats behavior?
• Hand made boxes, put cat in, cat had to figure out how to escape.
• Thought cat had an instinct to escape.
Thorndike’s Learning Curve? How did behaviorists look at this?
• Average time it too the cat to get out in different trials.
• Cat was going through classical conditioning.
How has Functionalism gone away? How has it stayed?
• Functionalism gave way to Behaviorism, succeeded by Cognitivism and recently by Biocognitive and Biosocial psychologies.
• Continuing reliance within disciplinary psychology helping people in real world.
Who are the Russian Behaviourists? Sum them up in a nut shell.
• Ivan Pavlov, and Vladimir Bechterev.
• Pavlov: physiology and psychology are complimentary.
• Bechterev: fully objective psychology, no interpretation. Can explain ALL behavior in terms of physiology.
What were Ivan Pavlov's interests? What did he discover? What were the 4 distinctions he made?
• Psychology and Physiology and in particular the nervous system.
• The learning reflex, a conditioned reflex.
• Unconditioned stimulus (US): a stimulus elicits an innate/automatic response, e.g., a piece of fresh meat.
• Unconditioned response (UR): an innate/instinctual response elicited by the unconditioned
stimulus that is naturally associated with it, e.g.,
salivation.
• Conditioned stimulus (CS): a previously biologically neutral stimulus that through experience comes to elicit a certain response (e.g., ringing of a bell), namely the conditioned response.
• Conditioned response (CR): a response elicited by a conditioned stimulus, e.g., salivation.
Pavlov’s characterized nervous system with two fundamental processes? What is the Cortical mosaic?
• Excitation: brain activity leads to overt behaviour in a reflexive manner, e.g., the brain processes involved in saliva production.
• Inhibition: when organism learns to inhibit brain activity in response to a particular stimulus.
• Specific pattern of inhibition and excitation at any given time.
What is Vladimir Bekhterev View of Psychology? Then what did he study? What did he find when applying electric shock to ginger? What was it called?
• Wants a FULLY objective psychology. No interpretation!
• Reflexology: attempt to explain all behavior from individual to social in terms of reflex concepts.
• Association reflex: response to electric shock could be elicited be signal that proceeds the shock.
Who are the American Behaviorists? Sum them up in a nut shell? Who is last similar too yet different too?
• Watson, Lashley, and Skinner.
• Watson and Skinner: behavior can be explained without mention of physiology.
• Lashley: physiology and psychology important.
• Lashley and Pavlov see physiology and psychology important. Pavlov: psychology dependent on physiology. Lashley: physiology dependent on psychology.
What was John B. Watson's view of Psychology. What was he against? What was he for? Who was “Little Albert.”
• Completely rejected mentalism (views mental as basis of human behavior).
• Advocated radical environmentalism (if not all, human behaviour is caused by
environmental experience).
John B. Watson believed in four types of behaviour?
• Explicit (overt) learned, e.g., talking, writing,
playing baseball.
• Implicit (covert) learned, e.g., increased heart rate at the sight of a gun.
• Explicit unlearned behaviour, e.g., blinking, sneezing.
• Implicit unlearned behaviour, e.g., glandular secretions and circulatory changes.
John B. Watson proposed four methods of study?
• Observation, i.e., either naturalistic or experimentally
controlled.
• Conditioned-reflex method, i.e., similar to that of Pavlov (with some Bekhterev mixed in).
• Testing, i.e., taking of behaviour samples -- measuring responses to the stimulus situation that constituted various “tests” (not the measurement of "capacity" or "personality").
• Verbal reports, i.e., any other type of overt behaviour (not Subjective reports of one's conscious experience).
What was Watson’s Conditioning based on? How was it different to Dewey's?
• Based on the notion of stimulus-response.

• Stimulus: either a general environmental situation or some internal condition of the organism.
• Response: anything the organism did, from turning toward a light to building a skyscraper.
Watson’s Theory of Habits, identified three kinds of habits?
• Emotional (or visceral) habits: humans come with three emotional responses (rage, fear, love) tied to particular stimuli; famous study with “Little Albert.”
• Manual habits: formed through the repetition of particular responses.
• Verbal habits: thought and internal speech are SAME thing. Verbal habits actually constitute thinking. Like driving or playing the piano, verbal habits are serially ordered.
Watson’s Serially Ordered
Habits?
• Like playing piano, habits of speech, responses, are produced one after another in same way.
Karl Lashley's view of psychology? How was it different to Pavlov? Then what did he study? What technique did he use?
• Physiology is depending on psychology.
• Pavlov's psychology depending on physiology.
• Cortical lateralization of function: involves investigating where particular psychological functions are located in the nervous system.
• Ablation: in which parts of the cerebral cortex are destroyed and the effects on the functioning of the organism observed.
What was Lashley's central organizational mechanism? Who was this in response too?
• To account for errors in serially ordered habits put forth by Watsons e.g. spoonerisms.
• There is a central organization that overlooks that process in advanced.
B.F. Skinner's Radical Behaviourism? How did he define mental life. Who did Skinner model his approach after?
• Rejected any type of
mentalistic (i.e., non-physiologic) accounts. Assumed that behaviour could be completely explained by external events to the organism.
• Did not deny it, but redefined it as forms of behavior.
• Thorndike (and his puzzle box).
How was B.F. Skinner's idea of behavior of an organism different to Watson's?
• Skinner focused on Operant conditioning: behavior controlled by consequences.
• Watson focused on respondent conditioning: behavior that is involuntary elicited by known stimulus. Stimulus-Response.
What is Skinner's operant conditioning? Reinforcement? What are the 3 types? Why did he define them in this abstract way?
• Involves the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behaviour.
• Anything that increases the rate or probability of response.
• Positive reinforcement: consequence of a given behaviour is rewarding to the organism.
• Negative reinforcement: consequence of a given behaviour is the removal of an aversive stimulus.
• Punishment: occurs when an aversive stimulus follows a response.
• Positive and negative reinforcement can be different for different people.
What is Skinner's reinforcement schedules? What are 3 example?
• Specific conditions involving various rates and times of reinforcement.
• Continuous reinforcement: reinforcement is given every time a desired response occurs.
• Fixed ratio reinforcement: reinforcement is given after a fixed number of desired responses have occurred e.g. Dog rewarded every 5th time he
obeys a command.
• Variable ratio reinforcement: reinforcement is given after a variable number of desired responses e.g. Dog rewarded after the first desired response, then again after 3 desired responses, then again after 2 desired.
Skinner’s Ideas Applied and
Evaluated? Walden Two?
• Community living using skinner's views.
• Mental events don't act as reinforcement which is problem.
What is important aspect of behaviorism in psychology? Hint anxiety and fears.
• Moves psychology into being used as a applied discipline e.g. reasons for fear and anxiety CC.
What did Gestalt Psychologists recognize that we opposite to the behaviorists notion of reductionism?
• Perception (and conception) of wholes was fundamentally
different from perception of parts (which wholes required, but which did not determine wholes).
What does gestalt mean?
• A configuration or pattern having specific properties that cannot be derived from the summation of its component parts. It is a unified whole, as opposed to an additive whole.
What is the holistic approach advocated by the gestalt approach?
• Whole and relations of the parts, with each other and with the whole, are emphasized.
Who influenced the gestalt movement?
• Kant (mind puts organization on world), Mach, William James, and Külpe...
What approach did Max Wertheimer found?
• Gestalt psychology.
What did Max Wertheimer’s Train Ride show about motion? What did he call this? What does this term mean? Who's idea is this notion similar too?
• That if the spacing, on and off of light was just right his mind would perceive the lights as one single flashing light moving back and forth. Motion is only perceived.
• The Phi Phenomenon: our tendency to impose organization on our experiences.
• Kant's idea of imposing organization on experience.
According to gestalt psychology what is the term for the ways we impose organization on the world? What are some of these ways?
• The Laws of Perceptual
Organization.

• Figure-ground: depending on what we see as figure and what ground, will perceive pic differently.
• Proximity, Similarity,
Continuation and Closure: with dots will organize according to these tendencies.
Wertheimer applied principles of Gestalt psychology to education. What were productive thinking?
• Productive thinking: type of thinking that involves the
pondering of general principles rather that focussing on specific facts. Aim to understand solutions to problems rather than memorizing logical rules.
• Thats how we should teach students.
What is Gestalt Epistemology? How is it different to correspondence theories of behaviorism?
• Gestalt epistemology: facts can have different meanings depending upon the contexts and perspectives from which they are viewed and/or considered.
• Correspondence theories: consider a statement to be true if the statement corresponds to facts in
the world, and false if it does not.
What did Wolfgang Köhler the gestalt theorists study with chimp (short and long stick) show him? Insightful? Insightful learning?
• Not a trial and error process to get something but all of sudden.
• Ability to understand how the parts of a situation are related to one another.
• Learning which involves perceiving the solution to a problem after a period of cognitive trial and error.
What did the gestalt's study of the chicken show them about learning. What did this mean for behaviorism?
• Learning the Relationships between things.
• Behaviorists learn what is taught through CC and reinforcement. Cant account for relationships.
What is Köhler (gestalt) idea of psychophysical isomorphism (Necker Cube)? Perceptual constancy? The minimum principle?
• Brain processes and experience share the same kind of Gestalt relations. Change in structure of brain should change structure of experience.
• The tendency to respond to objects as being the same, even when we experience those objects under a wide variety of circumstances, e.g., shape constancy...
• What we perceive based not so much on what is actually in the external world, but on our organization of our experiences of the external world.
What did Kurt Koffka (gestalt) say about the Growth of the Mind? Physiognomic properties? What were first experiences?
• Children naturally understand emotional meanings of their perceptions, i.e.,
percepts have physiognomic properties—expressive properties that are intrinsic to percepts and not learned.
• First experiences are figure-ground experiences.
What was Kurt Lewin's (gestalt) field theory? What is psychological field? How do we measure this?
• Branch of physics, studies how energy distributes itself within physical systems, applied this to psychology.
• Psychological field: any and all the forces acting on an individual at a given time.
• Through Life space: the totality of psychological facts that exist in an individual's awareness at any one given time that determine behavior. Pic of blackboard psychology, someones life choice of school as goal.
Kurt Lewin's (gestalt) Motivation and the Zeigarnik Effect?
• Motivation: constituted from the cycle of tension states followed by relief.
• Zeigarnik effect: remember uncompleted tasks better than completed ones. Thought because unresolved tension engenders the persistence of quasi needs (needs that are not life or death) that are not discharged.
What was Kurt Lewin's donation to gestalt psychology?
• Put gestalt theory into social context. Social action research: not just gather evidence but promote social change e.g. study racism.
Evaluation of Gestalt Psychology? An unfinished project? An important corrective or balance? Politics of science? Problem of causation?
• Yes, died out due to not researchers in this field.
• Yes to behaviorism.
• Yes, gestalt not published because went against behaviorism.
• If motion is perceived then how do we account for causation?
Name the 5 people who used introspection and how did each use introspection?
Descartes: introspection to discover private thoughts (the god in me).
Locke: self-observation as an inner scientist.
Wundt: observe self and your experiences of a metronome in strict conditions. Under watch of Wundt or done on Wundt himself.
Titchener: psychological parallelism. Describe experience of objects (avoid stimulus error). Complicated series of introspections. Retrospective analysis.
James: observe you flow of consciousness. Danger of Psychologist fallacy.
How was the ground prepared for the behaviorists?
• The functionalist psychology was stepping stone (still subjective while behaviorism is objective).
• Comparative psychology, objective observation of behavior.
• Thorndike's puzzle boxes.
What is the general notion of behaviorism?
• Objective psychology: rejected subjective experience, only study measurable and observable things.
• Behavior only proper subject matter.