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81 Cards in this Set

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What did funeral games consist of?
wrestling, boxing, archery, chariot races, foot racing, javelin, discus, and sword fighting
Competitiveness is derived from which terms?
contest and prize
What 4 major festivals dominated the 5th century and who did they honor?
Pythian games - Apollo
Isthmian games - Poseidon
Nemean games - Zeus
Olympic games - Zeus
Where did the Olympic games orginate?
Mount Olympus or Olympia
Who are the founders of the ancient games?
Hercules, Zeus, and Pelops
What is the date of the first competitive games?
It is unknown
When was the first victor of ancient games recorded?
776 BC
Where were chariot races held?
Hippodrome
What proof of eligibility was needed in order to participated in ancient games?
That the person was Greek, free (not a slave), and had no criminal record.
How long did the ancient games celebration last for?
5 days
How did the Olympics impact the ancient world?
-provided Greeks with calendar
-profound impressions on Greek art
-important part in thinking of Greek philosophers
-inspired Greek poerty and drama
-Greek culture emerged into mainstream life of Asia Minor, South Italy, and North Egypt
-Etruscans incorporated Greel sport into martial exercises
Why did the Romans feel that the Greek games were corrupt?
because of nudity
What purposes did the animal fights of Roman games serve?
-entertainment for an idle populace and to dispose of social undesirables (Christians, theives, and murderers). gambling as well took place
Who were gladiators drawn from?
war prisoners, condemned criminals, disobedient slaves, and the occasional volunteer
What were the rewards of a gladiator?
fed well, served by masseurs, and trained by the best teachers available
When were gladiatorial fights abolished?
404 or early 5th century
What did ball and stick games symbolize?
-return of spring
-human fertility
-growth of crops
What did the church provide for ball games in the Middle Ages?
-a place and time for playing games
What are the Middle Ages' names for field hockey and where were they associated with?
-Hurling (Ireland)
-Shinty (Scotland)
-Cambuca or Bandy (Britain or France)
When was English football played?
Shrove Tuesday
What other games did football lead to?
Stoolball and Bowls
What are some social distinctions separating the aristocracy and the peasants?
-access to land
-certain animals (ex horses)
-hunting implements
What are some characteristics of hawking?
-had little military significance
-used little space
-incorporated gambling
-was spectator sport
How did tournaments benefit knights?
-Provided training for battle
-offered poor knights a way to earn prestige or wealthy patronage
-economic gain through ransoming and capturing
-pretext for gathering alliances for kings or wealthy in order to provide protection
What 2 types of combat did tournaments consist of?
-melees
-jousts
What was a melee?
hand to hand combat with many men on teams
Where was tennis first played?
monasteries and church cloisters
What was the original name of tennis?
le jeu de paume or "a game of handball"
Why was peasant participation in sport prohibited?
The wealthy decided that their interests should differ from those of the peasants
Why was it ordered that pasttimes should be dismissed?
-it disturbed the tranquility of social order
-a concern for military preparedness was important
The Greek ideal of a harmonious body and mind was what?
the "Renaissance Man"
What are the characteristics of a Renaissance Man?
-socially adept (proficient)
-sensitive to aesthetic (or appearance) values
-skilled in weaponry
-strong in body
-learned in letters
-well built and shapely of limb
-expert in swordpaly, archery, and horsemanship
-participant in all exercises benefiting a man of war
-could leap, swim, and run
played games benefiting a man of court
What is a scholarly athlete?
excelled in academics (philosphy, literature, and visual arts) and sports
What are some humanist beliefs?
-admired ancient Greeks
-emphasized the joy of living
-People are inherently good
-One's life is worth contemplating
Who wrote the Book of Courtier and what did it highlight?
Baldassau Castiglione
-the ideal courtier or Renaissance Man
Thomas Elyot wrote what book including which beliefs?
The Book of the Governour
-frowned on pastimes of the masses
-advocated for exercises that made the "spirits of a man more strong and valiant"
-promoted activity as an integral part of the education of the upper classes
Who was the first heardmaster of the Merchant Taylors School
Richard Mulcaster
Who wrote the book Toxophilus?
Roger Ascham
What was the Giuco Del Ponte?
2 people fought on a bridge using pointed shields and tried to knock their opponent off
What are some games considered gentlemanly?
Giuco del Ponte, Jousting tournaments, and horse racing
What was palio?
horserace
What was calcio?
unique to Italy
similar to English football
only honourable soldiers, gentlemen, lords, and princes participated
What was tennis known as?
international sport of kings
Where was golf geographically contained?
Holland, Scotland, and England
Why did the Aztecs participate in ball games?
as a form of ritual
What are the 2 main sports that were played by Native Americans?
Shinny (similiar to field hockey) and racquets (or lacrosse)
What was lacrosse refered to as?
"little war"
What replaced humanism in Europe?
the Calvinist theory
How did English Puritans view sport?
they thought it was the devil
Who was the most important leader of the Protestant Reformation?
John Calvin
what did John Calvin attempt to construct?
a theocracy
Calvin and his followers banned about 200 amusements. What amusements were given the most attention?
prostitution, gambling, drinking, dancing, and games traditionally associated with gambling
Why was football considered a disruptive game?
-interfered with commerce
-destroyed property
In which sports were stacks invariably high?
fencing, bowling, cricket, football, wrestling, horse racing, and cockfights
Why did Puritans oppose the recreational life of masses?
-it was geared towards the seasonal cycle associated with the old Catholic Church calendar
-had ancient connections to pagan and catholic festivities
What social changes occurred in the 16th and 17th century England?
-enclosure movement
-economic and population change
The Puritans were more severe in their opposition of what type of sport?
public sport rather than individualistic sports
What occurred when the Puritans took over the monarchy?
-abolished the Cotswold games
-declared the Declaration of Lawful Sports to be null and void
-prohibited Sunday amusements
What type of knowledge did James Figg share?
various combats with foil, backsword, cudgel, and fist
Who was England's premier fighter, trainer, and promoter
James Figg
What are some of Broughton's Rules?
-no hitting below the belt
-no wrestling holds below the waist
-bouts are broken up into rounds, ending when a man went down or off the stage
-provided 30 sec rests between rounds
What did King Charles II do after returning from continental exile in 1660?
-re-established the monarchy, church, and customary social activities
After King Charles II's return, which traditional sports were revived?
-Cotswold games
-footrace
-wrestling
-fencing
-football
In regards to bowling, what did King Charles II do?
-build bowling alleys
-drew up rules in 1670
Tennis waned in popularity in which century?
17th
What were some new activities that King Charles II introduced?
-ice skating
-summer water sports (swimming, rowing, yachting)
-horse racing
What were some advantages of horse racing shifting from monarchial control to aristocratic control?
-form and rules of turf
-formal organization
What type of things did the Jockey Club do?
-organization of owners and breeders
-rules of dress for jockeys
-appointed judges, starters, clerks, and other officials
-exacted penalties for offenders
What did the Racing Calendar portray?
-publicized rules and regulations
-disseminating news and events
-regulating annual schedule of meets
What became the unofficial mecca of cricket?
Marylebone Cricket Club
By the end of the 18th century, which sport was recognized as the only sport to bridge the gulf between upper classes and the masses, north and south, town and countryside?
cricket
What was used for golf clubs and balls?
branches curved by nature and leather balls filled with feathers
Who broke up boxing from its alliance with swordplay and cudgeling?
Jack Broughton
What did Jack Broughton introduce into the sport of boxing?
gloves for sparring and exhibition
What disadvantages did boxing suffer?
-legally banned
-a string of undistinguished champions
How did gambling influence sports?
people were compelled to bring order to sports as a means of providing predictability to their bets
How did horse racing change in the 18th century?
-straight race (1/4 mile)
-oval tracks (1 mile)
A gladiator avoided what type of mandatory service?
military
What were the gladiatory schools created by Caesar called?
Ludi
A gladiator was given their freedom when what occured?
they were offered the woooden sword or they bought their freedom with the use of money from their winnings
What was considered a sign of surrender during a gladiatorial fight?
putting up a finger or a hand