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75 Cards in this Set

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Daughter Languages of Indo-European
Italic
Tocharian
Germanic
Celtic
Balto Slavic
Armenian
Albanian
Indo-Iranian
TAAGBIIC
Grimm's Law
1st millenium BC, voiceless stop to voiceless fricative, voiced stops to voiceless stops, voiced aspirated stops to voiced heart
Not Indo-European languages in Europe
Finnish
Hungarian
Estonian
Lapp
Basque
Turkish
THE
Non Indo-European languages in world
Asian, Hebrew, Native American
HAN
Trace English from Indo-European
Germanic, West Germanic, Low Germanic, English
GWLE
Sir William Jones
Started classifying languages into classes, first to hypothesize that there was an Indo-European language rather than simple relations--studied sanscrit and Latin
High German, Low German
altitude (in class), latitude and longitude (high - south, low - north)
Phonemic symbols for English
[x] [y] [ae]
Phoneme
Different sound, changes meaning
Allophone
Different sound, doesn't change meaning (variation)
How do you describe a consonant?
Voiced, voiceless, bilabial, fricatives, etc.
How do you describe a vowel?
High low, front back, rounded unrounded
Where did the Angles, Jutes and Saxons come from? When?
449, North Germanic tribes coming from North Germany and Denmark. Brought futharc and Germanic languages
Where did we get the word English and England?
Angles. Ish means "of the people"
Who lived in England before Angles and Saxons? Why don't we have more Celtic words in our language? Why do we have so many Latin ones?
Celts, considered slaves and pagans, didn't mingle, Latin was prestigious, language of the church
When did Christianity Come to England?
597-- Irish missionaries (got rid of futharc, thought it pagan)
Dialects of Old English. Most prestigious? What dialect did we get English from?
Northumbrian
Mercian (where our language came from)
Kent
Wessex (had most power at time, King Alfred, didn't get conquered)
When were the Norse Invations?
787, endings become less important, so prepositions and syntax gain prominence, sk words, they them there
King Alfred
huge library, chronicle of history of everything that happend, Anglo-Saxon chronicle
Danelaw
Northeast of Alfred's line after the war
Treaty of Wedmore
making of Alfred's line, only crossed for trade, intermarried
Futhorc, how influenced later alphabets, symbols
Runic writing, first six letters of our alphabet, wynn and thorn, put cross o it to christianize it
Where did the English get Latin alphabet?
Christian missionaries
Most of our surviving Old English manuscripts are written in:
Wessex (only region not attacked)
Accents
Accents on first syllable unless a prefix is used
Front mutation
a moves towards ae, ae moves towards e, e moves towards i--everything moves towards i
Sounds unique to Old English?
[x] and [y]
What consonant phonemes does PDE have that were not phonemic in OE?
[f] [v], thorn
Nominative
subject, subject compliment
Genitive
possessive
Dative
indirect object, object of preposition
Accusative
direct object
Noun system in Old English
Gender, number, case
Strong masculine diclension
our modern day plural and possessive came from this
Strong neuter
sheep to sheep
Weak masculine
oxe to oxen (no vowel change)
Mutated Plural
i-mutation (mouse to mice)
What verb kept the distinction between past tense plural and singular?
to be
Latin on the continent
wine, wall, cheap, beer, street
Dative
indirect object, object of preposition
Latin through Celtic
cross, chester
Accusative
direct object
Latin through church
alter, mass, candle, deacon
Noun system in Old English
Gender, number, case
Strong masculine diclension
our modern day plural and possessive came from this
Words from Celtic
hog, dun, Avon, Dondon, bin
Strong neuter
sheep to sheep
Major source of loanwords into OE
Latin
Weak masculine
oxe to oxen (no vowel change)
Words from Indo-European, Germanic
Gast, god, hlaford, biddan, halig
Mutated Plural
i-mutation (mouse to mice)
Most common words order
SVO
What verb kept the distinction between past tense plural and singular?
to be
Latin on the continent
wine, wall, cheap, beer, street
Latin through Celtic
cross, chester
Latin through church
alter, mass, candle, deacon
Words from Celtic
hog, dun, Avon, Dondon, bin
Major source of loanwords into OE
Latin
Words from Indo-European, Germanic
Gast, god, hlaford, biddan, halig
Dative
indirect object, object of preposition
Most common words order
SVO
Accusative
direct object
Noun system in Old English
Gender, number, case
Strong masculine diclension
our modern day plural and possessive came from this
Strong neuter
sheep to sheep
Weak masculine
oxe to oxen (no vowel change)
Mutated Plural
i-mutation (mouse to mice)
What verb kept the distinction between past tense plural and singular?
to be
Latin on the continent
wine, wall, cheap, beer, street
Latin through Celtic
cross, chester
Latin through church
alter, mass, candle, deacon
Words from Celtic
hog, dun, Avon, Dondon, bin
Major source of loanwords into OE
Latin
Words from Indo-European, Germanic
Gast, god, hlaford, biddan, halig
Most common words order
SVO