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21 Cards in this Set

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Who was Diophantus?
the father of algebra", was an Alexandrian Greek mathematician[1][2][3][4] and the author of a series of books called Arithmetica, many of which are now lost. These texts deal with solving algebraic equations,.
What are the three states of algebra
rhetorical , symbolic , syncopade-Syncopation is," however, "very simply, a deliberate disruption of the two- or three-beat stress pattern, most often by stressing an off-beat, or a note that is not on the beat.
Who was Hypatia,and what is her significance in the history of mathematics?
Commentary Writer , was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher in Roman Egypt who was the first well-documented woman in mathematics. As head of the Platonist school at Alexandria, she also taught philosophy and astronomy
Nine Chapters of Mathematical Art
a practical handbook of mathematics consisting of 246 problems intended to provide methods to be used to solve everyday problems of engineering, surveying, trade, and taxation. Failure to see similar rigorous proofs in Chinese works such as the Nine Chapters Written by Lui Hui played a fundamental role in the development of mathematics in China.It is the earliest work in Arabic
What do al-Jabr and al-Juqabala mean?
al-jabr "restoration"), al-Khwarizmi, who founded the discipline of al-jabr, t he introduced the methods of "reduction" and "balancing" (the transposition of subtracted terms to the other side of an equation, that is, the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation) which the term al-jabr originally referred to,[12] and that he gave an exhaustive explanation of solving quadratic equations,[13] supported by geometric proofs, while treating algebra as an independent discipline in its own right. The science of reunion and reduction
Liber Abbaci: Who? what? Why?
Written in 1202 by Leonardo de Pisa, Better known Fibonacci, means "The Book of Calculation". first section introduces the Hindu–Arabic numeral system. 2ND section presents examples from commerce, such as conversions of currency and measurements, and calculations of profit and interest. 3rd section discusses a number of mathematical problems Ex: The growth of a population of rabbits, which was the origin of the Fibonacci sequence for which the author is most famous
The Fibonacci Sequence: What is it? What is its origin?
the growth of a population of rabbits, was the origin of the Fibonacci sequence. Known as set of numbers that starts with a one or a zero, followed by a one, and proceeds based on the rule that each number (called a Fibonacci number) is equal to the sum of the preceding two numbers such that F(0) = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34 ...
The Golden Ratio
the limit of the ratios of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci number sequence 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, …, in which each term beyond the second is the sum of the previous two, and it is also the value of the most basic of continued fractions Based on the number 1.618, Phi the perfect number in mathematics seen as an intrinsically beautiful and perfect ratio. In ancient times, gold was seen as a perfect and beautiful metal, and it became associated with objects of great beauty or perfection.
What is Copernicus' heliocentric view of the universe?
The heliocentric model is a theory that places the Sun as the center of the universe, and the planets orbiting around it. The heliocentric model replaced geocentrism, which is the belief that the Earth is the center of the universe.
What was Tycho Brahe's contribution to Kepler's work?
Collecting data that enabled Kepler to discover the laws of planetary motion ... In particular, Brahe compiled extensive data on the planet Mars, which would later prove crucial to Kepler in his formulation of the laws of planetary motion because it would be sufficiently precise to demonstrate that the orbit of Mars was not a circle but an ellipse
"Who is Vieta "
Viète's chief work was in algebra. He made a number of innovations in the use of symbolism and several technical terms still in use (e.g., coefficient). His work is important because of his tendency to solve problems by algebraic rather than geometric methods... he made a very specific choice to separate the unknown variables, using consonants for parameters and vowels for unknowns.
Who is Descartes
dubbed the 'Father of Modern Philosophy' the Cartesian coordinate system — allowing reference to a point in space as a set of numbers, and allowing algebraic equations to be expressed as geometric shapes in a two-dimensional coordinate system (and conversely, shapes to be described as equations) — was named after him... " I think there for I am"
Who is Simon Stevin ?
First person to give a systematic Exposition of the rules of operation of decimal fractions Helped standardize the use of decimal fractions and aided in refuting Aristotle's doctrine that heavy bodies fall faster than light ones...Decimal arithmetic: Teaching how to perform all computations whatsoever by whole numbers without fractions, by the four principles of common arithmetic: namely, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division....
Who is Galileo?
proved that all objects revolve around the sun, not the earth Books- Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, which appeared to attack Pope Urban VIII by use of Salviati - An intellectual who seems to speak for Galileo
Sagredo - A wealthy nobleman who is seeking truth.
Simplicio - An Aristotelian philosopher who puts up ineffectual arguments
for Salviati to knock down.... and Book The Two New Sciences The sciences named in the title are the strength of materials and the motion of objects or better said the projectile Motion and Gravitational Acceleration. First discovery the "equality of Time" Pendulum
Ars Magna
an important book on Algebra written by Girolamo Cardano... (Latin: "The Great Art") a method for solving cubic equations ..THE Book contains the first published solution to cubic and quartic equations. Cardano acknowledges that Tartaglia gave him the formula for solving a type of cubic equations and that the same formula had been discovered by Scipiano del Ferro
Who is Rafael Bombelli, why is he significant?
He is the author of a treatise on algebra and is a central figure in the understanding of imaginary numbers...Bombelli is generally regarded as the inventor of complex numbers, as no one before him had made rules for dealing with such numbers, and no one believed that working with imaginary numbers would have useful results.
The Rabbit Problem
How many pairs of rabbits will be produced in a year, beginning with a single pair, if in every month each pair bears a new pair which becomes productive from the second month on?"
The result can be expressed numerically as: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34 ...
Napier
as a Scottish scholar who is best known for his invention of logarithms, but other mathematical contributions include a mnemonic for formulas used in solving spherical triangles and two formulas known as Napier's analogies... also the inventor of the so-called "Napier's bones"
Book on Addition and Subtraction
Written by Al-kHOWarizm according to the Hindu Calculation It is the earlist work to explain the hindu use of the hindu decimal system of Numerals Made use of Zero
Consist of Arithmetic
What are Kepler's 3 laws of Planetary motion?
The path of the planets about the sun is elliptical in shape, with the center of the sun being located at one focus. (The Law of Ellipses)
An imaginary line drawn from the center of the sun to the center of the planet will sweep out equal areas in equal intervals of time. (The Law of Equal Areas)

The ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their average distances from the sun. (The Law of Harmonies)
The Condensed Book on the Calculation of AL-jabr and al-juqabala
Written in 825 earliest islamic algebra text It showed Solutions of equations Consist of Algebra