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66 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Islam
Religion
Muslim
"submission" someone who follows Islam
Mecca
Main center of trade
Kabba
Large stone building in Center of Mecca, Muhammad rededicates, part of the Hajj
Yathrib/Medina
In a family fued, wanted a 3rd party mediator, left in the Hijra, "city of the prophet"
Hijra
622 CE
Umma
Community of believers, all = in God's eyes
Ali
M's son in law, married to fatima, Shi'it Ali thought he should be caliph, moved * to Kufa
Karijites
First sect in Islam, killed Ali
Shi'at Ali
Wanted Ali to be Caliph
Abu Bakr
First Caliph
Fatima
Married to Ali, M's duaghter, Egypt and Fatimids
Umayyad clan
Last family in Mecca to accept Islam
Muawiya
Govenor of Syria, $, wanted Ali to resign, first Umayyad Caliph
Muslim Conquests
establishment of social and religious order based on Quran
Umayyad Caliphate
* to damascus, Muawiya, 750 CE
Karbala
Husayn sees town waiting, party is killed, 10 Muharam 680
Imam
Leader that has "secret" understanding
Abbasid Revolution
Anti Umayyad, New dynasty, 750-1258 CE, converts, * Bagdad, slave soldiers
Bagdad
* during abassid revolution
1258 CE
Mongols sack Bagdad, end of abassid caliphate
Shariah
Broad set of rules, constition, "way or path"
Fiqh
Law, actual rules and punishments, criminal code
Quran
"speech of God" Muhammads revalation
Hadith
"report" sayings and words of Muhammad, actions, compliled by Ulama
Mahdi
12th Imam, Husayns decendant, sunni believe, but shi'it believe he is the 12th Imam
5 Pillars of Islam
1. Testifying
2. Prayer
3. Almsgiving
4. Fasting during ramadan
5. Pilgramage (hajj)
6 Pillars of Faith
1. Unity of God
2. Angels
3. Prophets
4. Holy Books
5. Day of Judgement
6. Will of God
Arabic Science
Islam was separate, written in arabic
Shifr
Zero (0)
Place System
0, 1-9, arabic numerals
Al-Khwarizmi
Wrote Al-Jabr (book of algebra), Algarithm
Al-Razi
Physician, head of hospital in bagdad, just reason alone, clinical studies, medical encyclopedia
Ibn Sina
Docter and Philosopher, *neoplationism* conjunction
Hasan Ibn al-Haytham
Optics,based work on Euclid
Science vs. Religion
Seperate, not a threat
Neoplatonism
Plotinus, "forms" exist in God's mind
Ibn Rushd
Based on aristotle, books were burned, religion and reasoning
Mutazilites
Philosophers, Ulama, rationalists wanted to prove the Quran
Nature of the Quran
Eternal
Al-Kindi
Earliest muslim philosopher, R & R work together, we need them both
Al-Ashari
professor of Al-Gazali
Al-Ghazali
3 brothers, limits of rationalism, started assault against mutazulites
Utalitarian Art
Useful art, rugs, furniture, plates, etc.
Caligraphy
Writing, arabic script, used in architecture
Arabesue
Repeating geometric patterns
Willful Ambiguity
Visual pun "optical illusion" never ending pattern
Dhimmi
Non-muslims, living under muslim rule, rights but not =, clothes to identify
Al-Andalus
Muslim arabic name for pennisula, (spain and portugal) "vandals"
Reconquista
process, Northern Christians against Southern Muslims, lead them out of Iberian Penn. 1050-1492
Granada
Kingdom, * of spain for muslims, last place to stand of reconquista, 1492
Sack of Jerusalem
by knights of first crusade, hostility of E and W
Ottomans
Dynasty, gunpowder
1453
Ottomans began rule of constantinople
Janissaries
Elite of Ottoman army, slave soldiers
Topkapi Palace
Headquaters, sultan and family lived here
Safavids
dynasty, Empire in Iran, semi-divine, shi'i Islam as state religion
Mughal Empire
Dynasty, descended from Timur Lank, ruled much of India
Akbar
"for akbar, it was emperors, not saints who should run things," authority
Southeast Asia
Former elite groups remained in power but converted to Islam
Achec
First region of modern day Indonesia
Silk Road
Main artery of culural and religous diffusion, china, central asia, and ME, extensive network of trade and routes
Revivalist movements
18th century
Wahhabis
earlier revival movement, converted family of Al-Saud
Taliban
"students"
Al-Qaeda
"the base"