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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Language
systematic and conventional means of human communication by way of vocal sounds
Phonology
sounds of a language and the study of these sounds
Phonetics
study of speech sounds, whether phonetic or not
Phonemics
Study of Phonemes
Phonemes
smallest speech unit that can distinguish one word or group of words from another in a language system
Morphology
study of the combination of stems and affixes to form words
Morphemes
smallest meaningful unit of a language
bound form morpheme
morpheme that occurs only as a part of a larger form ,
example = -s in lamps
affixes
bound(not an independent word) such as a prefix or suffix, added to the base, stem or root.
inflectional affix
affix used to indicate an inflection
derivational affix
affix used to form a new word by derivation
syntax
way in which words are arranged to form phrases, clauses, and sentences: word order or structure of sentences
lexicon
total inventory (including words) of the morphemes of langugage
semantics
study of the meaning of language
graphics
in linguistics, the study of writing systems.
grapheme
single unit in a writing system; loosely, a letter of an alphabet
fusion
process where by formerly distinct forms become "fused"
example = hw and w in whale and white
fission
process whereby variants of a single form become independent forms in their own right
outer history
Non-linguistic events in the lives of speakers of a language that lead to changes in the language.
inner history
changes within a language that cannot be attributed directly to external forces
reflexes
result of the historical development of an earlier form.
example = oak is a reflex of the germanic *aik
OE
ME
EMnE
PDE
Old English ( 449 - 1100)
Middle English ( 1100 - 1500)
Early Modern English ( 1500 -1800)
Present Day English ( 1800 - now)
prinicple of least effort
according to this principle languague changes becuase speakers are "sloppy" and simplify their speech in various ways.
example = going to changes to gonna
denotation
basic, specific, literal meaning of a word or phrase as oppposed to its emotional meaning
connotation
emotional meaning of a word; its implications suggestions, or associations
pejoration
semantic change for the worse/aka degeneration
example = in OE saelig menat "happy, blessed" its PDE derivative silly means "foolish"
amelioration
change to a more favorable meaning
example = English word croon, hum sing softly borrowed from Middle Dutch kronen, groan lament