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21 Cards in this Set

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Battle of Tours
Battle between Franks lead by Charles Martel (The Hammer) and Islamic forces in 622, helped to halt the spread of Islam and lay the foundation for the Carolingian empire
Franks
A band of tribal groups originating in West Germany, united under the Merovingian Dynasty (5th century)
Pope Leo I
(400-461) Best known for meeting Attila the Hun and persuading him to not invade western Europe (452), also contributed tremendously to the idea of papal authority, although not especially powerful in the face of the emperor
Cult of Mary
???
Patrick of Ireland
(late 4th to early 5th century) Spread Christianity throughout Ireland, was captured prior to spread and then returned after seeing a vision. Founded monasteries that were responsible for saving many important documents through barbarian invasions of mainland.
Benedict of Nursia
Founder of Benedictine Rule, initially practiced severe asceticism, first rule failed because it was too strict, second became the foundation for most of western monasticism
Pope Gregory I
(590-604) Forced into being a pope by election, formerly a monk. A strong pope both religiously and as a ruler. Papacy declined rapidly after his rule, faithful to celibacy, helping the poor, missions to barbarian people
Church Year
Effort to restore a christian quality to the pagan calender. Largly accomplished by giving new meaning to pagan feasts. An example of how the church relied on physical and visible elements of faith: you can't get away from Christianity if it is part of the year. Advent>Christmastide->Epiphany->Shrove Tuesday->Ash Wednesday->Lent->Holy Week->Ascension Sunday->Pentacost
Charlemagne
(742-814) Crowned as first emperor of Holy Roman Empire by Pope Leo III (indicating Papal power over emperor). Put an end to 600 years of power struggle. Brought about Carolingian Renaissance, reform of church.
Seven Sacraments
Baptism
Eucharist
Penance
Extreme Unction
Marriage
Ordination
Confirmation
Feudalism
General Economic/Social system for much of the middle ages. Lords (landholders) ruled Vassals who rented land from then, which was worked by peasants. Lords provide protection, also elect rulers for Church, no real centralized authority, has strong impact on monasteries.
Cult of the Saints
Practice of veneration of saints, including practices of burying saints outside their towns, building churches on their remains, saints' bones as relics, miracles by visiting their grave. Example of tangible manifestation of religious belief.
Boniface of Germany
(c. 672-754) Missionary figure in the Middle ages. Built Monasteries in unchurched tribal areas. Complained to the pope that rich laypersons were controlling the church. Anointed Pepin the Short, grandfather of Charlemagne
The Venerable Bede
Wrote The Ecclesiastical History of the English People, eventually declared a doctor of the church
Relics
Physical objects associated with saints or other religious figures, eventually turned into an industry to bring people to pilgrimage sites, finally called into question during the reformation.
Benedict of Aniane
abandoned the court in order to become a monk; known for his wisdom and piety – way he followed the Rule in monastic life; brought monasteries during Charlemagne under Benedict’s Rule; entrusted with responsibility to reform monasteries
Santiago de Compostella
Location of the purported remains of St. James the Great, discovered in he 9th century
Alcuin of York
(Early 8th century-804) Key figure in the Carolingian Renaissance, invented lowercase letters, reintroduced court theology, was Charlemagne's court Deacon
Egeria
Nun who wrote about her trip to the holy land. Came from spain, toured the Holy Land, was overwhelmed. Her diary became a justification for the Crusades
Cluny
Monastery in the 10th century-13th century; emphasized renewal, became training ground for church leadership; emphasized independence in time of conflict between church and state; stable (6 abbots in 250 yrs); ornate and liturgical worship; too successful for its own good – monastery became too wealthy and powerful; neglected physical labor – more emphasis on “Divine Office”
Transubstantion
The position that the elements in communion become the true body and blood of Christ. Likely embraced because of its mystical nature. Supported by Radbertus, confirmed in the 4th Lateran Council