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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Features of a Civilization
-the rise of cities, populated areas
-governmental structure in place
-diversification in labor, not everyone is making living on land
-class structure-
-emergence of complex religious systems
-development of monumental architecture
-development of writing
Why are civilizations where they are?
-survival such as water (food source, drinking water, commerce, natural barrier, transportation)
-natural barriers (mnts, deserts)
-climate consideration- (long growing season)
What are two theories about civilizations?
"Scarcity of Lang"
"Adversity Hypothesis"
What are the periods of Egypt?
1. Old Kingdom (3100-2100 BC)
2. Intermediate Period
3. Middle Kingdom
4. 2nd Intermediate
5. New Kingdom
Religion In Egypt
-no separation between church and state
-obsessed with immortality and life after death. soul lived on as long as body remained in tact
-was believed initially that only the pharoh lived on then it was believed he would be accompanied by his servants
-Aristocaracy then wanted to pass on as well.
burial
-pyramids were testaments to the power of the pharoh. pyraminds depend on power of pharoh and building stage
-most famous was king tut. tomb was discovered by corner in 1922. discovered it may have been robbed. there were 4 rooms of jewelry.
-found he had blow to knee and an elongated head. must have been 21 when he died.
-pharoh was seen as father figure
pyramids
proved to be very expensive and put drain on treasury. government collapses under the strain of the building on pyramids. old kingdom collapses.
First Intermediate Period
"time of troubles" social unrest, chaos, turmoil, eventually restore dynastic rule
The Middle Kingdom
-time of prosperity, strong central government. Pharoh's aren't as strong as they were in the old kingdom. Not all about the pharoh anymore.
-religious development- The Cult of Osirus- had been pharoh and was in charge of passing over to the other side. First time there was an interest in humanities and ethics. People are now accountable for actions.
-Due to pressures, rivalries, and economic problems->collapses.
Second Intermediate Period
-Strife, disorder. foreign invasion. The shepard kinds of Hykos invade Egypt.
-had armor, horses, chariots->formidable enemy. conquers egyptian state-> foreign domination gets act together & drives out the hyskos
The New Kingdom
-egypt becomes militeristic. there are now professional soldiers. after hyskos wanted to make sure they would fall under invasion again.
- decide to become offensive and puratalistic. Thutmos III leads Egypt in conquest of other lands.
-spreads control along mediterranean. seaboard becomes empire. took possession from palestine to syria. Egypt is militant and aggressive
-religious development- Amenhotep IV saw that religion had become corrupt. Decids to stop worshipping Gods and start worshipping Aton. Introduces new concept->rewards for integrity and goodness of heart.
-Amenhotep changed name to Akhenhaton which means "Aton is satisfied". amenhotep dies. King Tut comes to rule and priests take back control.
-Egypt will weaken/can't hold on to foreign possessions. will fall out of mainstream tradition.
mythopoeic approach
trying to make sense out of the world around them. they start the myths.
Developments that restrict the role of women:
1. War
2. Commercialism- men control the commerce. women are restricted.
Women In Egypt
-Monogamy was teh rule. wealthy households did have herems.

- skilled in entertainment: singing, dancing, playing instruments

-Wife was to be vered and respected. Circulated freely in society. Marginal representation in the job markert.
Women could:
be merchants, bakers, farmers, waitresses, musicians, acrobats

-inherit property

- have control over their dowries

-women were listed in census reports

- are no records of divorce

-women could even inherit the throne. Hatshpot- wore and fake beared and dressed like a man to be taken seriously

-zero tolerance for adultry by women. carried a death sentence, cut off her nose.
Egyptians are credited with:
-beer

-did brain surgery

-did splints for bones

-understood snake bites

- understood benefits of castoil

-did circumcisions
Mesopotamia
(Land Between the Rivers)
- gift of the Tigris and Euphrates.
- had natural barriers; mountains and the . not as insulated as the Egyptians
Negatives of Geography
-sand storms from deserts

-flooding- T&E were unpredictable

-more iratic weather conditions
1st Urban Civilization
Sumer-city state in the southern part. had very progressive culture. came about time of dynastic period in Egypt->writing survived -> cuneiform
Political History
tumultuous history. it was a constant struggle between 2 groups and constantly fighting off invaders from the outside.
City State after Sumer
Hkkad- established dominance over the region (hegemony). They are considered to be the first empire.
- Ruled by Sargon I.
-Hkkad falls and Sumer reassurts itself--very uneven history.
Babylonians
- Second important era in Mesopotamia

-city state of Babylon

-Under Hammarabi

-great prosperity, organized by tax system, trade- est. partners as far away as china
Science and Math in Babylonia
- Algebra-> division of the circle

-signs of zodiac- days into horus and minutes
Mesopotamian Culture
-religion dominated every facet of life

-polytheistic- plurality of gods- believed taht they controlled universe- were owners of the land.

-kings- not divine

- how did they percieve gods? they were all powerful. everyone on earth was manisfestation of Gods.
Religion
- there is no afterlife-> only the gods live forever. May get to come back as evil spirit to torment human beings.

- death: buried individual under home without a coffin-> didn't want to waste land

-life of suffereing with nothing to look forward to. attitude is fatalistic & depressed. tehre is no security. faced great adversity. constant warfare

- priestly class will claim that they are the intermediaries between the gods. come up with incantations that they have powers to win over the gods.

-did sacrifices: grains, fruits, animals, and human sacrifices.
Law
- belief that all the lawas originated from the gods. very law and order society. can see the values in society thru laws.

- Code of Hammarabi: accumulation of 282 sections of laws

-patriarchal society- family oriented because they work teh land together

-adultry was punishable by death for the wife
Family Values
- monogamy was the rule. there was divorce. women could divorce their husbands for adultry. if wife becomes ill, he can marry another woman but he had to support her. 1st wife could leave if she wanted to and take her dowry with her.
Babylonian Woman's Quote
"The wife is a man's future. The son is a man's Refuge. The daughter is a man's salvation."
Phonecia
-sea faring people. developed a commercial network.

-developed alphabet based ons ounds
Aramean
-located by the desert

-did on land what phonecians did on the sea. Land traders
Hebrews
Contributed religion
Assyrains (Fertile Crescent)
bad guys of ancient period.
- no group of ppl are more hated.

-originated in a region east of Tigris

-largely unprotected land. Became very aggressive just to survive in this region. {hill people}.

-become imperialistic and expansion-like.

-900 bc period of conquest and expansion

-covered much of ancient period

-developed military machine by used mountain horsemen, very advanced, could subdue enemies. Employed psychological terroism.
Assyrian Objectives
1. to bring enemies down.

2. to destroy enemies

3. once conquered, deported enemies from land, sold people to slavery in foreign lands, would round up groups of diverse ppl and put into place torture techniques for public viewing.

- would skin people alive

-impale l upon stakes

- cut off ears, noses, and sex organs while exhibiting victims in cages.
Assyrian Quote from King Tislath
"their boys and girls I burnt upon flames. Pillars of skulls I erected before their town."

**comes from chronicles written by people who were victims and from assyrians themselves.
-> reason: tried to est. reputation for themselves. used it as a sort of insurance policy.
Marriage and Divorce
- polygamy was the rule. the more wives, the more children for the military. wives considered nothing more tahn possession by their husbands.

- there was divorce but only on the initiation of husband. only could go in public with heavy veil.

- abortion was biggest offense against state. can be speculated that they had huge problem with it. used of metal rod .

-theory: reproducation at such an alarming rate-> there would be miscarriage.
Egyptians are credited with:
-beer

-did brain surgery

-did splints for bones

-understood snake bites

- understood benefits of castoil

-did circumcisions
Mesopotamia
(Land Between the Rivers)
- gift of the Tigris and Euphrates.
- had natural barriers; mountains and the . not as insulated as the Egyptians
Negatives of Geography
-sand storms from deserts

-flooding- T&E were unpredictable

-more iratic weather conditions
1st Urban Civilization
Sumer-city state in the southern part. had very progressive culture. came about time of dynastic period in Egypt->writing survived -> cuneiform
Political History
tumultuous history. it was a constant struggle between 2 groups and constantly fighting off invaders from the outside.
City State after Sumer
Hkkad- established dominance over the region (hegemony). They are considered to be the first empire.
- Ruled by Sargon I.
-Hkkad falls and Sumer reassurts itself--very uneven history.
Babylonians
- Second important era in Mesopotamia

-city state of Babylon

-Under Hammarabi

-great prosperity, organized by tax system, trade- est. partners as far away as china
Science and Math in Babylonia
- Algebra-> division of the circle

-signs of zodiac- days into horus and minutes
Mesopotamian Culture
-religion dominated every facet of life

-polytheistic- plurality of gods- believed taht they controlled universe- were owners of the land.

-kings- not divine

- how did they percieve gods? they were all powerful. everyone on earth was manisfestation of Gods.
Religion
- there is no afterlife-> only the gods live forever. May get to come back as evil spirit to torment human beings.

- death: buried individual under home without a coffin-> didn't want to waste land

-life of suffereing with nothing to look forward to. attitude is fatalistic & depressed. tehre is no security. faced great adversity. constant warfare

- priestly class will claim that they are the intermediaries between the gods. come up with incantations that they have powers to win over the gods.

-did sacrifices: grains, fruits, animals, and human sacrifices.