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30 Cards in this Set

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1858 Land Law
Was an extension of the Ottoman Tanzimat reforms. Encouraged the development of private property, agricultural production for the world market, the decline of tribal social organization, and growth of the population.
Jason’s slide says: The 1858 Land Law eliminated tax farming, which raised tax revenues, and he standardized ownership of land based on European model.
Arab Revolt –
This was a revolt against the Ottoman Empire from 1916-1918. If you have seen Lawrence of Arabia, this is it! The Arabs wanted to create a unified Arab nationalist state. The British had only to gain from this, so they actually encouraged and helped the Arabs in this.
Auto-emancipation
Auto-emancipation - An early Zionist pamphlet written by Russian-Polish Jewish doctor and activist Leo Pinsker in 1882. The essay discussed the origins of anti-Semitism, and argued for Jewish self-rule and the development of a Jewish national consciousness.
Balkan War
Balkan War - broke out on 8 October 1912 when Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia, having large parts of their ethnic populations under Ottoman sovereignty, attacked the Ottoman Empire, terminating its five-century rule in the Balkans in a seven-month campaign resulting in the Treaty of London.
Haganah
- Haganah was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948, which later became the core of the Israel Defense Forces.
Hatt-I Sharif -
The Hatt-i Sharif of Gülhane was an 1839 proclamation by Ottoman Sultan Abdülmecid I that launched the Tanzimât period of reforms and reorganization.
It promised reforms such as the abolition of tax farming, reform of conscription, and greater equality of religion. The goal of the decree was to help modernize the empire militarily and socially so that it could compete with the Great Powers of Europe. It also was hoped the reforms would win over the disaffected parts of the empire, especially in the Ottoman controlled parts of Europe, which were largely Christian.
From Jason’s slides: the Hatt-I Sharif promised protection of Ottoman subjects’ rights to life, honor, and property [including religious minorities]. It created a regular and fair taxation system, as well as a fair system of military conscription. It also created a privy council (council of judicial ordinance) which went beyond merely consultative to some legislative functions.
Kibbutz
Kibbutz – Jewish utopian communities that began as a mix between socialism and Zionism. It was traditionally based on agriculture.
Maronite Christians –
Maronite Christians – Minority group in Lebanon which has traditionally held the presidency of the government. Received capitulations from the French, which gave them power over Sunni, Shi’a, and Druze. So, in turn, the Sunnis Shi’a and Druze massacre the Maronites. The French championing the Maronites
Mixed Courts
Mixed Courts – instituted by Khedive Ismail because of his indebtedness to Europeans, he made it so that Europeans could be judged by judges from their own countries. This helped bring about the Urabi Revolt.

As pointed out in the review, the mixed courts were also beneficial to minorities who had previously been totally at the mercy of the Muslims.
Naqshbandiya
– Neo-orthodox Sufi group in India, who wanted to renew Islamic Society after the British took over.
National Party (Egypt) –
National Party (Egypt) – 1900-14, Mustafa Kamel (not the Turkish one) instituted the National Party, which was mainly nationalist and advocated Egypt for the Egyptians. It also partly used the ideas of Pan-Islam, which made it largely only for Muslims. It stressed the Ottoman link vs. British.
Nizam-I Jadid
Nizam-I Jadid - was a series of reforms carried out by the Ottoman Empire sultan Selim III during the late eighteenth century in a drive to catch up militarily and politically with the Western Powers. Specific reforms included conscription, new taxes, new legal categories, and the promotion of a more territorially-based state structure achieved by more strictly defined regions and administrative centralization. The term later came to refer to the new regular army established under the reform program.
Ottoman Constitution of 1876
Ottoman Constitution of 1876 – Instituted by Ottoman sultan Abdul Hamid II, this constitution only lasted for two years, and it was abolished because it gave more power to the sultan.
Pale of Settlement -
Pale of Settlement - was the term given to a region of Imperial Russia, in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed, and beyond which Jewish permanent residency was generally prohibited. It extended from the eastern pale, or demarcation line, to the western Russian border with the Kingdom of Prussia (later the German Empire) and with Austria-Hungary
Safavid Empire
Safavid Empire - were one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled one of the greatest Persian empires since the Islamic conquest of Persia and established the (Twelver) school of Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in the history of Islam. This Shia dynasty was of mixed ancestry (Kurdish and Azerbaijani, with intermarriages with Georgian and Pontic Greek dignitaries) and ruled Iran from 1501 to 1722.
Sykes-Picot Agreement -
Sykes-Picot Agreement - was a secret agreement between the governments of the UK and France, with the assent of Imperial Russia, defining their respective spheres of influence and control in Western Asia after the expected downfall of the Ottoman Empire during World War I. It was largely a trade agreement with a large area set aside for indirect control through an Arab state or a confederation of Arab states. The agreement was concluded on 16 May 1916 It did not contemplate the assignment of any League of Nations mandates, since the League and its mandates were developed during the post-war period. The terms were negotiated by the French diplomat François Georges-Picot and British Sir Mark Sykes.
Tanzimat –
Tanzimat – The Tanzimat meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. The Tanzimât reform era was characterized by various attempts to modernize the Ottoman Empire, to secure its territorial integrity against nationalist movements and aggressive powers. The reforms encouraged Ottomanism among the diverse ethnic groups of the Empire, attempting to stem the tide of nationalist movements within the Ottoman Empire. The reforms attempted to integrate non-Muslims and non-Turks more thoroughly into Ottoman society by enhancing their civil liberties and granting them equality throughout the Empire.
Timar -
Timar - Timar is a land granted by the Ottoman sultans between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, with a tax revenue annual value of less than 20 000 akçes. The revenues produced from land acted as compensation for military service.
Turko-Greek War (1920) -
Turko-Greek War (1920) - The Greco–Turkish War of 1919–1922, was a series of military events occurring during the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after World War I between May 1919 and October 1922. The war was fought between Greece and Turkish revolutionaries of the Turkish National Movement that would later establish the Republic of Turkey.
The Greek campaign was launched because the western Allies, particularly British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, had promised Greece territorial gains at the expense of the Ottoman Empire. It ended with Greece giving up all territory gained during the war, returning to its pre-war borders, and engaging in a population exchange with the newly established state of Turkey under provisions in the Treaty of Lausanne
Ulema
Ulema – educated class of Muslim scholars; they are usually dispensers of Shari’a (Islamic law).
Umma muhammadiya –
Umma muhammadiya – This was the Islamic community that the Mahdi of Sudan created.
Umma Party
Umma Party – Instituted by Lutfi Al-Sayyid, it extolled equal rights, but was partly an Egyptian nationalist movement, and was territorial in its nationalism.
Urabi Revolt
Urabi Revolt - The Urabi Revolt was an uprising in Egypt in 1879-82 against the Khedive and European influence in the country. It was led by and named after Colonel Ahmed Urabi. Think of the lecture by Jason on foreign interference and popular responses.
Waqf
Waqf – A religious land endowment. In Algeria, the French eventually confiscated these lands and distributed them to colons.
Warnier Law
Warnier Law - Law passed by France's National Assembly in 1873 to establish individual titles on previously undivided lands held by families and tribes in Algeria.
WZO
he World Zionist Organization, or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization, or ZO, in 1897 at the First Zionist Congress, held from August 29 to August 31 in Basel, Switzerland. The ZO served as an umbrella organization for the Zionist movement, whose objective was the creation of a Jewish homeland in The British Mandate of Palestine. Theodor Herzl, who with Max Nordau and Zvi Shimshi, organized the first Congress, later wrote in his diary: "If I were to sum up the Congress in a word – which I shall take care not to publish – it would be this: At Basle I founded the Jewish State. If I said this out loud today I would be greeted by universal laughter. In five years perhaps, and certainly in fifty years, everyone will perceive it." When the State of Israel was declared 51 years later on May 14, 1948, many of its new administrative institutions were already in place, having evolved during the regular Zionist Congresses of the previous decades. Some of these institutions remain to this day. The WZO's headquarters was permanently moved to Jerusalem, after being located over the years in capitals of Europe, including Berlin and London, and most recently in New York City, in the United States.
Young Algerians
Algerian nationalist group. Formed shortly before World War I (1914–18), they were a loosely organized group of French-educated workers in the modernized French sector. The Young Algerians were “assimilationists,” willing to consider permanent union with France on the condition that native Algerians be given the full rights of French citizens. In the years following the war, such gradualist reformers found themselves opposed by radical nationalists demanding complete independence.
Young Ottomans
oung Ottomans - The Young Ottomans were a secret organization of Ottoman nationalist intellectuals formed in 1865, influenced by such Western thinkers as Montesquieu and Rousseau and the French Revolution. They developed the concept of Ottomanism, aligned with these thinkers. They advocated a constitutional, parliamentary government.The Young Ottomans were bureaucrats resulting from the Tanzimat reforms who were unsatisfied with its bureaucratic absolutism and sought a more democratic solution. One of them was Namık Kemal, who basically introduced the concepts of vatan (fatherland) and hürriyet (freedom) in the Turkish language.The organization was declared forbidden and its members exiled in 1867.The failure of the "Young Ottoman" policies (Ottomanism) in reverting the decline of the Ottoman Empire led groups of intellectuals to search for other means. One of these groups was the Young Turks, which brought the Empire to the Second Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire) and then to World War I, with the policies developed under the Three Pashas.
Young Tunisians
Young Tunisians - were a political party formed in 1908 by a group of young Tunisian intellectuals who thought that the people of Tunisia should have self-determination, rather than being a protectorate of France. They were French-educated and advocated for rights of Tunisians and Frenchmen. They printed a newspaper called Le Tunisien.
Young Turks
Young Turks - a coalition of various groups favouring reformation of the administration of the Ottoman Empire. The movement was against the monarchy of Ottoman Sultan and favoured a re-installation of the short-lived constitution. They established the second constitutional era in 1908 with what would become known as the Young Turk Revolution.The term Young Turks referred to the members of the Ottoman society who were progressive, modernist and opposed to the status quo. The movement built a rich tradition of dissent that shaped the intellectual, political and artistic life of the late Ottoman period generally transcendent to the decline and dissolution periods. Many Young Turks were not only active in the political arena, but were also artists, administrators, or scientists.