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27 Cards in this Set

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John Rockefellar
Who: Rockefeller, Standard Oil. Co.
What: Pools, trusts, Standard Oil, horizontal integration
Where: Cleveland
When: 1860s
Why: Consolidated control over oil industry using horizatonal integreation; reduced prices; drove out competition with low wages, attention to detail, and forming secret rebate deals with railroads; formed trusts and pools
What business did he own? What business techniques did he use? How did he drive out his competition? What were two of the types of business practices he developed that were immoral?
Battle of Little Big Horn
Who: The Siox and General Custard's Army
What: Battle of Black Hills
When: 1876
Where: Little Bighorn River
Why: American government offered Sioux opportunity to sell or lease land because the government believed the lands were rich with gold; the Sioux refused causing Colonel Custer to recklessly attack the Sioux; his army was massacred
What did the United States government want the Sioux to do? Did they comply? What did an army do with what results?
Tweed Ring
Who: Boss Tweed, Democratic party
What: Political machine
When: 1860s-1870s
Where: Tammany Hall, NYC
Why: Boss Tweed held 17 city offices controlling 12000 patronage jobs; although he gave some money to the poor, most he pocketed; in 1871 he was worth $12 million and convicted of 104 counts of fraud and bribery
What was the Tweed Ring? How many offices did the leader hold? How many jobs did he control? What was he charged of?
Samuel Gompers
Who: Gompers, AFL
What: leader of AFL
When: late nineteenth century, 1886
Why: Believed in "pure and simple" unionism, rejecting sweeping assaults on the existing wage-labor system; concerned with winning concrete benefits including 8 hour workday, abolition of child labor, better working conditions; did not believe in women's work; signaled the acceptance of the current wage-labor system
What did he signal? What did he believe in? What were his union's goals? Did he believe in women working? Who could join his union?
Helen Hunt Jackson
Who: Jackson, Native Americans
What: A Century of Dishonor
When: 1881, 1885
Why: Exposed American duplicity and corruption in dealings with Indians; theme of 100 years of mistreatment; said the reservation system had done irreversible damage and should be abolished
What did she write? What was its theme? What did she advocate?
Dawes Act
Who: Congress, Native Americans
What: Legislation to help indians
Where: The West
When: 1887
Why: Intended to help the indians by giving them 160 acres to cultivate for 25 years to be granted a title and U.S. citizenship; destroyed tribal unity by shifting leadership from tribe leader to U.S. government; unsuccessful because many Indians given unfertile land
What was it intended to do? Why was it unsuccessful? What effects did it have on Native American culture?
William Jennings Bryan
Who: William Jennings Bryan
When: 1896
What: presidential canidate of Democrats
Where: Speech in Chicago, "Cross of Gold"
Why: Great orator- gave "Cross of Gold" speech at Democratic convention in Chicago in 1895; wanted unlimited coinage of silver and gold in a 16:1 ratio; attacked protective tariffs; endorsed by the Populists; traveled the countryside in campaign; ran against Taft, McKinley
What speech did he give? What was his platform? Who were his political opponents in the presidental elections?
Farmers Alliances
Where: eastern Texas
Why: Wanted to use political leverage for reform; Wanted government to print more greenbacks; wanted government ownership of the railroads and banks to solve credit problems; wanted popular election of senators, to be able to petition for legislation, and have the secret ballot
What did they want in money? What did they want government ownership of? What did they want to implement inthe political system? (3 things)
Mugwumps
Who: Well-educated prominent Republican educators and journalists
What: elite political group of Republicans
When: 1884
Why: Disdained partisan politics; style of independence and moral rectitude; used positions to influence public opinion; would have been mass movement if they hadn't been stuck-up
Who were they? What party did they belong to? Why wasn't their movement ever big? What did they influence?
Edward Bellamy
Who: Bellamy
What: "Looking Backward"
What: Fictitious novel in which a young man takes some opiates to get to sleep in the urban noise; wakes up in 2000 in a state in which all of society is owned by one giant trust; addressed issues of urban life, social unrest, and income inequity
What was his novel about? What was it called? What happened when the protagonist woke up? Who owned the society? What issues did the novel address?
Wabash Case
Who: States, Railroads
Why: Altered Munn V. Illionois by saying states could only regulate commerce within their state- not interstate commerce like the railroads;
What case did it change? When did it come? What did it say now?
The Granges
Who: midwest and South
What: Patrons of Husbandry
What: Created coop from realizing they could rent equipment together; purchased things like seed, fertilizer in as a group for leverage; wanted to fight unfair railroad rates so practically lobbied the state legislatures to set up commitees to set up committees to regulate RRs
Where were they popular? What was their formal name? What did they invent? What did they eventually lobby for?
Munn V. Illionois
Who: Granges, railroads
When: 1876-77
Where: Illionois
What: legislation to regulate RR prices
Why: Granges wanted state legislation to establish maximum rates RRs could charge for grain elevators; court upheld state's right to uphold right to regulate property "devoted to public use" meant RRs had to lower short-haul rates so they raised long-haul rates
Who did this case involve? Who won? What did the loser do to compensate?
Pullman, Il
What: Company town
When: southern Chicago
Why: Company town created for Pullman sleeper car workers; population around 12,000 constantly changed because no one wanted to stay in the undemocratic town; in 1893 workers had a strike to have wages raised or to have rent lowered
Why was the company formed? What was the population? Why did the population change constantly? Where was it located? What happened there in 1893?
Haymarket Square Riot
When: 1886
What: Strike about police brutality
Why: broke momentum of direct-labor resisteance because press vilified Knights of Labor so membership in that Union declined
What were the ramifications? Who was involved? What did it break?
Scientific Management
Who: F. W. Taylor, factories
What: Time-management technique
When: later half of nineteenth century
Why: Shifted decision-making from worker to management; increased monotony of working in factory; started time-motion studies to increase efficiency and cut costs;
Who started it:? Who used it? What kinds of studies did it involve? What did it increase and what did it cost? What effects did it have on the workers?
F. W. Taylor
Who: Taylor
What: Scientific management
Why: Introduced centralized-purchasing, and cost accounting; advocated breaks for workers and rewards to make them more efficient; interested in time-motion studies
What did he advocate to make workers more productive? What did he invent?
Horatio Alger
What: best-selling novels
Why: Wrote best-selling novels about a young man who comes to the city with the goal of becoming "respectable"; emphasized values of hard-work, honesty, sobriety, and good-luck; sold 20 million copies
What were the books about? What values were emphasized in the protagonist? How many copies were sold?
Social Darwinism
What: Applied Darwin's theory of genetic evolution to society
Why: argues that in the free enterprise system everyone is given an equal opporunity and the "fittest" prevail; natural laws dictate the economic and behavioral aspects of man's behavior and should not be interferred with
Applied Darwin's theory to what? What was the theory? How did this translate into how the government should manage business?
Horizontal Integration
Who: Rockefeller, , J.B. Duke
What: Business technique
Who used it?
Vertical Integration
Who: Carnegie, Swift
You won't get swiftly to Carngie jumping up and down.
James Buchanan Duke
Tabacco producer; acquired exclusive rights to a cigarette-making machine; used vertical integretion and horizontal integration; eventually controlled frow raw materials to marketing
What did he acquire a patent to?
Munn v. Illinois
Who: Granges and RRs
What: Granges seeked state regulation and laws to establish maximum rates railroads and elevators could charge; Suptereme Court upheld state right to regulate property "devoted to public use."
Who did this involve? What did the court rule and what was their explanation for that ruling?
F.J. Turner
Said frontier had closed
Frontier junk
Pendleton Act
When: 1883
What: First cvil service act; based jobs on merit no patronage; applied only to federal level; passed based on public sentiment from Garfield's assassination
Why did it pass? When did it pass? What did it say? What level of government did it apply to?
Frank Baum
Wrote the Wizard of Oz
Wrote what?
Lester Ward
Founder of modern sociology; "Dynamic Sociology"; argued that Social Darwinism ignored the poteential of many people and that the government should plan and structure society to run smoothly
What was Ward's profession? What book did he write? What did he think was wrong about the Social Darwinists' philosophy?