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60 Cards in this Set

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The Taliban is a group that ruled Afghanistan before al-Qaida. It used Islamic law, and didn’t allow women to have many rights or education. Watching television and listening to music weren’t allowed, as well as playing games and sports. It led to the United States entering Afghanistan and replacing Taliban with an elected president, and it gave some rights back to the people of Afghanistan.
Kim Jung Il
-officially designated as his father's successor in 1980,
-assumed a growing political and managerial role until the elder KIM's death in 1994
- decades of economic mismanagement and resource misallocation
north korea btw
Mao Tse-Tung
Marxist communist, led GLP, cultural revolution, and used much propaganda, such as LRB’s to promote himself and his policies.
Kim Il Sung
Past ruler, was replaced by his son, Kim Jung Il North Korea btw
The mujahideen were “holy warriors” who hated communism and wanted to create an Islamic government after Afghanistan’s government, jailed and murdered thousands of Afghans.
Osama bin Laden
Leader of al-Quaeda, terrorist
Deng Xiaoping
1978, four modernizations (agriculture, industry, science/technology, defense). Gave people more freedom, made tougher politics. Let people set up private businesses.
Great Leap Forward
Mao’s failed attempt to modernize china. Steel quotas could only be met by making poor quality goods; quantity over quality. Many took up building instead of farming, loss of agriculture. Since everyone was guaranteed living, people stopped working hard. Floods and droughts make it worse. 20 million die.
Cultural Revolution
Mao’s attempt to rid china of capitalists, revisionists, and reactionaries. Used little red books and propaganda to promote himself. Wanted to destroy the 4 olds (old ideas old customs old culture and old habits). People were killed if they were suspected of disagreeing with mao, and many ended up commiting suicide to escape the hell that was the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.
Korean War
1950-1953 Korean War
*NK invaded SK to unite and make Korea on US Policy Of Containment, so we sent troops
*No peace treaty signed, Demilitarized zone is established.
* Adopted a policy of diplomatic and economic “self-reliance”.
Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT)
International treaty to limit the spread of nuclear weapons. Open for signature on july 1, 1968. North korea broke it and later withdrew.
System of government in which has no class. All property is publicly owned so that everyone is equal.
Mao used it to promote himself and his beliefs. Little red books, posters, “long live Chairman Mao”. Sometimes used falsely to promote someone or something.
Authoritarian government
Nazi Germany, Castro’s Cuba, Stalin USSR. Takes advantage of problems, nationalism. Take power, voted into small group.
System of government that is centralized and dictatorial (“TOTAL” control)
System of government where people mainly have control, system involving voting.
Everyone working together
Nelson Mandela
He was a key leader of the ANC, and a big anti-apartheid activist. He spent 27 years in jail and wasn’t released until after the UN threatened South Africa. He backed the work for the Truth and reconciliation commission to find crimes committed during apartheid. He also wanted to bring in electricity, housing, and schools for the black population.
He was a major sign of freedom for all blacks in South Africa and his release came as relief. Before he was jailed he spent most of his time on non-violent anti apartheid protests. Until he had to admit they weren’t working, still he continued to lead protests until apartheid was abolished.
Steve Biko
Nonviolent, anti-apartheid activist in south Africa in the 1960’s and 70’s. led black consciousness movement, died in police hands.
Dutch settlers
A term used to describe armed gunmen in Darfur, west Sudan, and Chad. Sudanese government says they aren’t supporting them, but they actually are.
Tutsis vs. Hutus
Tootsis were favored by colonial powered Belgium, recently Hutus president is killed, thought it was the tootsis in the 100 day genocide. 800,000 people died, 1994. Hutus=majority, tutsis=minority.
Leopold II
Leopold II exploited the human and mineral resources of the Congo Free State. From Belgium. Forced people to work, he’d cut limbs if they didn’t cooperate.
African National Congress (ANC)
South African political party and black nationalist organization. Banned by SA government from 1960-1990. Nelson Mandela is leader.
Boer War
Boer war- war in 1898 between boers and British over gold and diamonds, British won
Policy or system of segregation or discrimination based on race.
Sharpville Massacre
1960. black south Africans peacefully protested against apartheid in Sharpville. 60 people were killed by police gunfire, sparked outrage. Made Nelson Mandela realize that the peacefulness wasn’t working.
Berlin Conference
Set boundaries to new European countries. Made rules, such as having to occupy territories. It also started the creation of roads, railroads, and governments. 1884-1885. Berlin Germany. They made it legal to colonize Africa.
Rwandan Genocide
Tootsis were favored by colonial powered Belgium, recently Hutus president is killed, thought it was the tootsis in the 100 day genocide. 800,000 people died, 1994.
Scramble For Africa
European countries competed for control of Africa, 1880’s to start of WWi. Political rivalries, expanding colonies.
Black Consciousness Movement
Anti-apartheid activist movement, emerged in south Africa in the mid 1960’s. led by Steve Biko.
Direct vs. Indirect rule
Direct rule meant that the colonial power controlled the government at every level. Indirect rule made it so traditional rulers stayed in place but preached the laws set by colonial power.
You may not speak, be quoted, write for publication, meet with more than one person at a time. May be confined to a certain area
Pass laws
the laws that require non-whites to have a passbook
suberbs that only blacks live in, still under south African law
reservation for blacks, on their homeland. Blacks got to rule themselves. Were in reservations, way out in remote areas. Wanted equality, outskirts of town.
Blood Diamonds
Conflict diamond, Sierra Leone and Angola diamond crisis, black market sales of diamonds.
Truth and Reconciliation Commission
Court-like body assembled in south Africa after apartheid. Anyone who felt that they had been a victim of violence could come forward and be heard by the TRC.
coup d'état
A violent and sudden overthrow of a government.
Peninsulares (LA)
Highest class – sent from spain to rule the colonies – small but powerful group – looked down on people that were born in the colonies
Creoles (LA)
American-born descensants of the Spanish settlers – had the same rights as peninsulares- the king creoles to top government/Church jobs – creoles were educated and rich – they resented the peninsulares
Mesitizos (LA)
ethnic group in Latin America – mix between natives and Europeans
Indians (LA)
native to LA – Aztecs, Mayas, Incas – well established empires until Europeans came
Free Blacks
Slaves who bought their freedom – some were freed by owners in the owners will – most became farm workers and laborers – some were able to earn a living by working as a skilled worker
Colombian Exchange
Named after Christopher Columbus

Sugar and maize get sent to Europe

Europe brings horses and firearms

Corn and cornmeal allows European population to grow
The belief that the colonies are supposed economically benefit the mother country (colonial power)

Raw materials get sent to Europe

Manufactured goods (from Europe) get sent back to the colonies
Conservative vs. Liberal
Conservatives wanted to preserve the old system of social classes and allow the Church to have the same power that it had always had. Liberals wanted to limit the influence of the Church and wanted to close the gap between the rich and poor. The conservatives didn’t believe in free speech and free press, but the liberals did.
Embargo and Sanctions
embargo is complete ban on trading with country – sanctions more specific ban – embargo usually put on by one country – sanctions put on by the world
Economic Imperialism
making country economically dependant on another country – Latin America on US – if US pulled out of some countries (aid, investments) would be devastated
a society is ruled by the oldest male
A small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution
A country governed by a dictator
Gross Domestic Product--the total value of goods produced and services provided in a country during one year.
A leftist group of rebels who over threw Anastasio Somoza, the Nicaraguan dictator, in 1979, and gained control of the government. They established socialist characteristics and brought land reform, which made the high society class mad. The Sandinistas lost power in 1990, after a long guerrilla war. The civil war left the economy in a worsened state.
military leaders who gained control in many LA countries during the periods of governmental instability after the Europeans left
Fidel Castro
Cuban dictator, current president of Cuba. He took over Cuba in a revoltion, and is an antagonist of the Bush administration.
Afghanistan Life Challenges
• Afghanistan is surrounded by other countries, so exporting goods is difficult and expensive because they can’t use boats and water. There are mountains and rugged plains, so there are many natural disasters. Some examples of these are earthquakes and drought. There is also limited fresh water sources, and most of the land has been overgrazed and deforested, so it is a challenge for the Afghan people to farm
Korea Life Challenges
Korean’s geography limits the land the citizens may use for farming. This limitation leads to careful use of the land to meet their food needs. Korea’s location between China and Japan, has led to the countries culture to be heavily impacted on the other two cultures.
China Life challenges
Low, prone to floods and whatnot.
South Africa Life Challenges
It affects life in south america because there are a lot of land
barriers, like the Andes Mountains and the Atacama Desert, make it hard
for the area to unite.