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66 Cards in this Set

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Michaelangelo
master of Renaissance art; painted frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel of the Vatican; preferred sculptures; made biblical carvings of David and Moses; wrote poetry and did architecture; helped design St. Peter's Basilica in Rome
Genghis Khan
creater of the largest empire (Mongol) ever; grandfather of Kublai Khan
Theodora
Justinian's wife; emperess of the Byzantine empire; spent childhood in circus; became an actress early teens; encouraged Justinian to improve laws for women including dowry laws; encouraged Justinian to fight the Nika Rebellion
Justinian
led the most splendid years of the Byzantine empire; husband of Theodora; appointed Belisarius as commander-in-chief; empire suffered 50 years after death
Joan of Arc
fought for the French in the Hundred Years' War; heard voices telling her to defend Orleans; was captured and convicted of heresy and witchcraft; burned at the stake
Alexander the Great
became king of Macedonia after death of his father (Phillip of Macedon); conquered most of the Persian empire; inspired his troops; became drunk and out-of-control before death; became king at age 20 and died at age 33
Nebuchadnezzar
built the Hanging Gardens for his homesick wife; considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World
Charlemagne
assumed the Frankish throne after his father, Pepin; controlled much of western Europe; crowned by Pope Leo III as "Emperor of the Romas; Father of Louis the Pious
Machiavelli
diplomat, historian, and Renaissance writer; wrote The Prince describing government in which "It is safer to be feared than loved."; qualifies as a humanist in some ways
Julius Caesar
Roman emperor; nephew of Marius; opponent of Sulla; part of the triumvirate; issued reports on campaigns known as Commentaries on the Gallic Wars; attacked Pompey (person) after being warned at the Rubicon River; ordered the formation of the calander used today; chose nephew, Octavian as heir
Jesus
born in Bethlehem and grew up in Nazareth; stareted as a carpenter; emphasized that God forgave people; preached and started the Christian religion
Muhammad
prophet of Islam; orphan at age six; began poor; was a caravan trader; followed Hanif sect; at age 40, Gabriel ordered him to preach; preached at Mecca, ordered to leave, left to Medina, gathered forces, captured Mecca
Ferdinand and Isabella
financed Columbus' voyage
Aristotle
student of Plato; scientist and philosopher; defined words and grouped similar or related facts; wrote Ethics, Poetics, Logic, and Politics; believed every government could easily be corrupted, should have aspects of each
Li Bai
Daoist; spent life seaking pleasure; wrote happy, light elegant stuff; became tipsy and drowned while reaching from a boat for his reflection
Augustus (Octavian)
ruled after uncle Julius Caesar; made the Second Triumvirate with Marc Antony and Lepidus; Augustus means "set aside for religious purposes" or "sacred"; referred to as the first Roman emperor;
Caligula
successor of Tiberius (after Augustus and Julius Caesar); brutal and insane ruler; appointed his favorite horse as consul; was murdered
Socrates
Greek philosopher; asked questions to teach; motto "know thyself"; created the "Socratic method"; accused of denying Gods; asked to leave or die; chose death, drank hemlock poison
Phillip of Macedon
Ruler of Macedon; father of Alexander the Great; was a hostage in youth; recruited the first paid army in Macedonia; organized infantry and phalanxes (16 rows of tightly spaced soldiers equipped with lances)
Leonidus
led the Spartans at Thermopylae; allowed soldiers with sons to remain; fought with his army to the death; had 300 Spartans with 6,000 allies against 200,000 Persians
Richard the Lion-Hearted
English leader of the third crusade (crusade of the three kings); might have gained the entire kingdom of jerusalem but preferred military gains; made no significant difference in a failing crusade
Shi Huangdi
founder of the Qin dynasty; name means "first emperor"; executed 460 scholars for disobeying
Tutankhamen
on the cover of our history book; Egyptian heir to Akhenaton; moved the capital back to thebes and reinstated polytheism
Asoka
one of India's greatest rulers; Chandragupta's grandson; conquered almost all of India to southern tip; gave up war and became a devout Buddhist; dedicated himself to Buddhism and spreading it; Mauryan empire quickly crumbled after Asoka
Siddhartha
a.k.a. Gautama or Buddha; lived in luxury; at age 29, left residence and saw poverty, wondered why suffering exists; spent the rest of his life answering these questions; started the Buddhist faith
Tamerlane
Mongol leader who claimed to be a descendant of Genghis Khan; was ferocious, had a career of conquest; said to have slaughtered 100,000 citizens at Delhi; masacered many countries; wanted to conquer Chinia, died
Kublai Khan
known as "Great Khan"; grandson of Genghis Khan; established the Yuan empire; defeated the Song dynasty; extended the Grand Canal
Marco Polo
merchant and explorer from Venice; marveled at the city of Hangzhou
Columbus
English Explorer of the New World
Hammurabi
Babylonian ruler best known for the Code of Hammurabi, a collectino of laws with the concept of an eye for an eye
Herodotus
traveler and first great historian of the western world; fascinating storyteller and writer; exaggerated at times; carefully distinguished between the things he had personally seen and those that had been told; often called the father of history
Spartacus
slave who led a revolt against Rome; more than 70,000 slaves took part; Spartacus and 9,000 followers were crucified
Pope Innocent III
lead papacy to hight of prestige and power; wrote books about law, theology, ahd Christian discipline; believd he was supreme above clergy and all rulers; made free use of power of excommunication
Urban II
called a meeting in Clermont to start the crusades
Cleopatra
wife of Marc Antony
Livia
Caesar Augustus' devoted and influential wife who counselled him on affairs of state and who, in her efforts to secure the imperial succession for her son Tiberius, was reputed to have caused the deaths of many of his rivals.
Agrippina
granddaughter of the emperor Augustus and a major figure in the succession struggles in the latter part of the reign of Tiberius (ruled AD 14-37).
Murasaki Shikibu
(My Upper Rabbit Asks So All Kittens In Southern Hawaii Inject Kitten Injections Because Ugly); wrote the Tale of Genji, world's first novel
Scheherezade
story teller in the Arabian Knights who prevented her death by telling stories
Lucy
earliest human skeleton
Hatshepsut
first recorded woman ruler; first ruled with her husband, Thutmose II, her half-brother
Virgin Mary
mother of Jesus
Pontius Pilot
judge who ordered Jesus' crucifixtion to prevent revolt
Hannibal
Spainish general who assembled an army that included elephants; faught in the Second Punic War
Cortez
Spanish explorer in the New World
Vladamir I
had missionaries from several faiths address him so he could choose a religion for his people
Ivan IV
became ruler of Russia at age 3; watched as boyars fought each other; took tital czar meaning "caesar"; had a secret police that executed traitors
Magellan
Portoguese navigator sailing for spain proved that the New World was separate from Asia
Phillip IV
argued with Pope Boniface VIII and had him brought to trial although Boniface died later
Brutus and Casius
people who's army was conquered by Marc Antony
Zeus
Greek god of sky
Scipio
Roman general who defeated Hannibal
Marc Antony
part of the Second Triumvirate; fell in love with Cleopatra
Draco
known for his code of laws that were harsh and sever, although were written down so everyone could see; known as Draconian laws
Cyrus
Persian conqueror who conquered Greek city-states; father of Darius
Darius
son of Cyrus, crushed revolts; sent a Persian army and fleet toward Greece, destroyed by storm; father of Xerxes
Xerxes
led the Persian forces at Thermopylae
Nero
hated because of a fire thought to have been started by him; hated anyway; commited suicide
Confucius
formerly known as Kongzi; started in poverty; wanted to end political disorder; thought everyone should accept their society role and the government should be virtuous
Zoraoster
Persian who taught that on earth people received training for the future life
Wu Di
Han emperor who started the technique of leveling in which people stored goods to prevent high prices; faught with Huns
Marcus Aurelius
end of the Pax Romana
Otto I, Otto the Great
was crowned emperor of the Romans by Pope John XIII; ruled the Holy Roman Empire;
Tughlug
murdered his father, efd the flesh of a rebel nephew to the rebel's wife and children, ordered the evacuation of Delhi and forced them to move to a new capital
Moses
brought the Hebrews the Ten Commandments
Pericles
under who Athenian democracy reached its hieght