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42 Cards in this Set

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Adolph Hitler
ruthless German dictator; extreme German nationalist and virulent Anti-Semite; led his fascist army of Nazis in World War II; wrote Mein Kampf
Lebensraum
doctrine adopted by Hitler claiming that superior nations had the right to
“living space” through expansion and warfare
Benito Mussolini
Il Duce; began in Italy the first European fascist movement; was made prime minister of Italy by threatening the king to march on Rome; established a total Fascist dictatorship in which secret police could arrest and confine anyone for all anti-fascist or disobedient behavior
Authoritarianism
domination and control of the population by the blatant use of military force; describes most governments in Latin America in the early 20th century
Totalitarianism
total governmental control over all aspects of life, subordination of the individual to the state, and the insistence that the masses be actively involved in the regime’s goals
Collectivization
process of establishing collective farms by combining many small holdings into one large farm worked by the peasants without wages under government supervision; first created in the Soviet Union by Stalin
Five-Year Plans
series of economic plans by Stalin to transform the Soviet Union into an industrial country; emphasized maximum production of capital goods and armaments instead of consumer goods; achieved fantastic success but caused millions of peasants to die in artificially created famines
Sudentenland
area in northwestern Czechoslovakia inhabited largely by ethnic Germans; land was ceded to Hitler because he demanded it and expressed willingness to risk “world war” to achieve his objective; high point of Hitler’s appeasement
Blitzkrieg
“lightning war” conducted with great speed and force like Germany’s advance at the beginning of World War II
Luftwaffe
German air force responsible for first sustained use of civilian bombing; subjected London and many other British cities to nightly air raids devastating the smaller communities
The Grand Alliance
coalition of major Western powers; the Big 3 leaders were Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill; met to decide how to end the war and discuss visions of a postwar world
Yalta Agreement
wartime meeting and declaration of liberated Europe; liberated countries were allowed to hold free elections to determine new political systems; called for unconditional German surrender, creation of 4
occupation zones, German reparations of $20 billion, and denazification/demilitarization in Germany
Potsdam Conference
July 1945 meeting of the Big Three; consisted of bitter disputes between Stalin and Truman about free elections throughout Eastern Europe; resulted in Europe becoming divided and hostile yet again just months after World War II
Erwin Rommel
led the German Afrika Korps in North Africa; broke through British defenses in Egypt but the troops were stopped and forced back across the desert a few months later
Douglas MacArthur
American general that commanded the invasion of Southern China through the Dutch East Indies by a process of “island hopping”
The Final Solution
Nazi’s final plan to annihilate the Jews; special strike forces were ordered to round up all the Polish Jews; concentrated them in ghettoes and murdered as many as 1 million
Dwight D. Eisenhower
“Ike;” republican U.S. president that ended the Korean War; as general of Allied forces, invaded beaches of Normandy and broke through the inland German defenses
Harry S. Truman
became president upon Roosevelt’s death; brought end to WWII by dropping 2 atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and causing incredible destruction; Truman Doctrine
Vichy France
authoritarian regime established by French WWI hero, Petain, over the 2/5 remainder of France not occupied by German armies
Winston Churchill
British prime minister that retaliated against Luftwaffe attacks by bombing Germany; one of the Big 3 that signed the Atlantic Charter; helped arranged the Munich Conference
Franklin D. Roosevelt
announced Good Neighbor Policy, which rejected use of U.S. military force in Latin America; met with Stalin and Churchill at Yalta
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
sites where first 2 atomic bombs were dropped by the U.S.
United Nations
an international organization whose predecessor was the League of Nations. Their aim is to keep the peace between nations through diplomacy. First suggested by FDR at the Yalta Conference in 1945
The Iron Curtain
terminology used for the hostile divide between Germany and the rest of Europe after WWII. W. Europe afraid of communist takeover in E. Europe
The Cold War
a period of hostile tension between the United States and the USSR following WWII. Characterized by nuclear arms races b/t the two countries
Spheres of Influence
areas in certain parts of the globe whose main influence is dictated by a dominant country. This country influences the lesser countries’ politics, economics, etc.
Truman Doctrine
speech in 1947 that said the U.S. would provide economic aid to countries that said they were threatened by Communist expansion
Marshall Plan
“European Recovery Program” under which the U.S. provided financial aid to European countries to help them rebuild after WWII
Containment Policy
policy adopted by the U.S. in the Cold War. Its goal was to use whatever means, short of an all-out war, to limit Soviet expansion
Josef Stalin
Dictator and Premier of the Soviet Union from 1928 to his death in 1953
Nikita Khrushchev
Soviet Premier who was the second successor after Stalin to run the Soviet Union; Premier of USSR from 1958-1964
Third World
countries whose economic, political and social situations are not as developed as the rest of the world
Fidel Castro
communist leader of Cuba who overthrew Batista in the 1959 revolution; leader of the only remaining communist country in the western hemisphere
Bay of Pigs
failed CIA-led invasion in 1961, led by the United States and President Kennedy. The aim of the invasion was to use U.S.-trained Cuban exiles in an attempt to overthrow Castro
Cuban Missile Crisis
haunting 13-day nuclear crisis in which the Soviets and Americans almost went to war. Cuba allowed the USSR to store missiles in their country, and the US became alarmed and threatened nuclear war. Crisis ended with removal of US missiles from Turkey, and removal of Soviet missiles from Cuba
Détente
relaxation of tension between the Soviet Union and U.S. that occurred in the 1970s
ICBM’s
Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles; first launched by the Soviet Union in 1957. These are missiles that are capable of traveling long distances
Lyndon Johnson
36th president of the United States, from 1963-1968. Very instrumental in the Vietnam War, as well as relations with Asia
Vietnam War
military conflict between South and North Vietnam in which the United States became involved in the mid 1960s. South= Vietcong. North = communists. US intervention b/c of their anti-communist sentiment
John F. Kennedy
35th president of the United States from 1961-1963; involved in the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the Bay of Pigs failure
SALT I
treaty signed between the Soviet Union and the United States in 1972; this limited the size of both countries’ antiballistic missile count
Ronald Reagan & the Evil Empire
40th president of the United States from 1981-1989. His reference to the evil empire was the communist empire of the Soviet Union. This was characterized by harsh rhetoric and policies towards the USSR and the Cold War. Reagan was highly suspicious of the country’s motives in foreign affairs