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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Herbert Hoover
In his first term as president, economy decflined, huge unemployment and dust storms.
- put in charge of food relief after WW1 by Woodrow Wilson
- Republican party took notice and he became the go-to-guy. (worked on cabinet for Coolidge and Harding, most effective spokesperson for GOP
- president in 1928, programs for relief werent working, too small-scale, he provided false hope(a car in every garage etc)
-hoovervilles= little shanty towns
-ran against FDR and lost
- ran against Hoover and won
- unknown, but efficient ( tons of legislative measures that were meant to pull America out of depression)
- connected with the people and offered them hope.
- the New Deal (restore consumer power)
The New Deal
-restore consumer power to make people feel good about themselves.
- banks could not provide their customers with their asseets, all the funds were wiped out and FDR tried to change the banking system.
- Emergency Banking Relief Bill (opened all banks that still had assets, and they continued banking., recirculated money, deposits not federally guaranteed.)
- put huge tax on alcohol, got money moving.
- paid farmers not to produce crops.
CCC(part of New Deal)
Civilian Conservation Crop
- for large groups of men without jobs.
WPA(part of New Deal)
money spent to create jobs.
-built libraries and other buildings
- hired everyone (artists, historians)
- needed lots of people to construct roads and bridges, etc.
NRA(part of New Deal)
National Recovery Administration
- for every business, fed. gov. would give codes of conduct setting output, trade practices.
- very challenging
- gov. would give one company in an area control over codes.
TVA(part of New Deal)
Tennessee Valley Administration
- put hydroelectric power in dams
SEC(part of New Deal)
-Regulated stock market
- no more samuel insulls
- continually being revised
"Blue Eagle"
National Recovery Administration exemplifier, "we do our part", gov. should manage economy
John Maynard Keynes
- Dealt with the New Deal and governent had to create jobs for the citizens.
-British economist
- said government was responsible for welfare of country.
- when something goes wrong, gov. needs to fix it.
Woody Guthrie
-family lost several homes during the depression
-dust bowl ballads
Dr, Francis Townsend
-65 years old (saw the problems for the elderly), demagogue (had simple solutions, certified eccentric
- They had their savings blown out.
- he wanted gov. to pay a pension of $200 a month to people over the age of 60
- didnt know where the money was coming from.
Father Charles Coughlin
-demagogue, radio prince, supported FDR, gave sermons about the problems of people and how FDR would help
-FDR kept him at a distance
-appealed to small-towns, anti-jews
- said that depression was because of wall street and that banks purposely hurt everyone
- wanted social justice clubs that would do his bidding.
- He ran against FDR in the National Union party and only got 2% of the vote
Huey Long
"King Fish", senator from Louisiana.
-shrewd and ambitious
-came from a family of populists and socialists
-very corrupt, built a political empire that was very efficient, (public works buildings, rebuilt LSU)
-Share Our Wealth Plan(government seize all fortunes over $5million, levy tax to everyone over $1 million.
-he wanted to guarantee every working man $25,000 a year plus a $5000 home.
-by 1935 had tons of Share Our Wealth Clubs(7-10 million names on mailing list)
- his popularity rivaled FDR's, they didnt like eachother
-planned to run for presidency in 1936, but was assasisnated by the son of a local politician.
-died due to lack off medical care
Mike Gold , The New Masses
-committed socialist, street corner politician, joined IWW
- his magaizine included ideas such as the overhaul of wealth/means of production into hands of workers, the governement could be brought to rise in one year.
-Gold promised this
-part of the popular front, that awakened the government to the lack of success of the New Deal.
- SS Act passed, and Wagner Act
Partisan Review
-magazine for leftists
-popularized modern art
- not socialism of mike gold, against violence.
Popular Front
-combo of leftists and Gold
- started by communists in 1936
- critiqued capitalism/real statement of lack of success of New Deal
- FDR cooperates with the group and moves new deal and everyone to the left a little bit.
-gave more sympathy to working class
-SSN and Wagner Act
Social Security Act
-put tax on employees and employers to create funds for the older generations
-most influential piece of legislature.
- came about because of the Popular Front
Wagner Act
-declaration of independence for union labor movement
- it outlawed discrimination
-and it outlawed refereed elections.
-bc of these changes, the US got out of WW2.
- avoidance of tangling up in other countries
-America had had a rough time during WW1 and we were STAYING OUT OF IT!
America First Committee
CHarles Lindberg was in charge
- part of isolationism.
-goal was to buil,d a great defense, so that no country or groups of countries could hurt the U.S., and to preserve American Democracy by staying out of European Wars.
-U.S. is an international power
-strong economy, strong military, prestigeg democracy.
-in order to protect thistheory, under FDR's term, America thought we would have to go to war. ultimately WW2
Lend-Lease Act
-allowed pres to lend and lease any military supplies to countries that we liked.
-basically england. they agreed to pay us back when they got the chance, free of interest.
Tri-Partite Pact
in 1940 Japan, italy and Germany got together.
-us cut off all trade to Japan.
-led to the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, killed many americans
-this led to war with Japan.
Pearl Harbor
attack by Japan on military base in Hawaii.
-2500 americans were killed
-japan wanted to crush american military
-u.s. declared war with japan because of this, and because of the TPA, Italy and Germany then declared war on U.S.
-massive WORLD WAR
attack by u.s. and british troops to liberate Europe from Nazi rule.
-took place on the beaches of normandy in france
-so much loss of life, still remembered today
Henry Luce
editor and publisher of Life AND Time Magazine.
-told america to accept our role and embrace internationalism
--encouraged world domination
-he said that we should live up to the responsibility we have as americans.
-important article
-giving the bully (hitler) what he wants
-us had to be strong and prepared to fight, because simply ignoring hitler wasnt going to work, he wouldnt give up, it only made matters worse.
- the only way to stop him was to use nuclear weapons.
-whole different kind of warfare.
Rosie the Riveter
-crusade for comfort (coming together to fight the enemy)
-pushed women into the army.
-taught women that it was okay to get jobs
-influential in transforming the military, because still today many women are emplyed by the army.
Phillip K. Wrigley
-convinced army that chewing gum would help relieve thirst, keep teeth clean and give them energy.
-put a stick of gum in each ration for troops
-made it patriotic to chew gum, even for citizens not actively in the war.
-created a taste, a demand and a market.
-after the war, profits soared, because there was no more rationing
John Hersey
-interviewed the american troops and found that most men were fighting for everyday things (whiskey, movies, dames)
- people connected these things with home
-fought for all modern conveniences, and consumer impulse to buy during the war.
-helped create teh "spend-buy" idea to the whole world
War Relocation Authority
-march 1942, rounded up all japanese americans and forced them into internment camps
-they were forced to sell property cheaply
-they took all of them because there wasw speculation that Japan was going to attack again after Pearl Harbor.
-u.s. was convinced that the JA's were assiting them.
- religious groups filed suits because it was an obvious attak on civil rights..
-supreme court ruled against them saying it was not against the constitution
-german americans were not affected
Unconditional Surrender
-consequence of war with the enemy
- after the war it came in handy for settung up and constructing the cold war.
US= god-loving, pure, good america VS.
THEM= subhumank, communist Soviet union
Warfare State
consequence of war. had to establish ways of life.
-keep factories going
-develop new kinds of war materials to keep economy ties to war production economy.
-people kept jobs, no depression
Yalta Conference
-during the nuclear age
- 1945, three rulers (FDR, Stahlin, Churchill) planning for post-war Europe
-at the conference, Soviet Union finally agreed to go to war with Japan (little hesitant)
-since they agreed to go to war, us agreed to a buffer zone in eastern Europe so the Soviet union could never be invaded by the west (Germans)
-after war, there would be free elections in east Europe
Iron Curtain
-Fulton, MO 1946
-FDR's Speech about the fact that the iron curtain has descended across continent of europe
-impossible to help people ruled by stalin
-FDR had died, and Harry Truman took over office.
Truman Doctrine
-1947, us would meet soviet army with our army
-the idea was to meet strength with strength
-hard to follow through with because of the Berlin Wall
Berlin Blockade
-1948, challenged the Truman Doctrine
- stalin closed off all routes that were supplying the western sections of berlin(trying to get rid of allie occupation)
-Truman used airlifts to supply berlin (a plane landed every three minutes with tons of supplies.)
-lasted almost a year
-us added stations in london, and it scared stalin, bc he thought they might bomb moscow.
-scared him so much, that the wall was lifter 318 days after it was built.
-aimed at communist political parties that existed and thrived throughout Western Europe
-wanted to undermine leftist regimes
-tried to bring disaster on communist parties
-marshall plan (20 billion dollars to unite countries in anti-communist cause)
Marshall Plan
-general george marshall, sec of state, wanted to offer up 20 billion dollars to european countries.
-it was a plan to unite countries under anti-communist cause
-Stalin said it was an imperialistic drive to control them, and so countries rejected it
-Group of North American and western european countries.
-put an arc around soviet union so it established treaty
-soviets established Warsaw Pact in retaliation
-key part is the presence of us troops inb europe
-western europe would be protected under a nuclear umbrella of us
-"attack on one, is an attack on all"
Brinkmanship, John Foster Dulles
-practice of going on the brink of nuclear war.
-giant game of chicken between john and Dwight D. Eisenhower
-Dulles said that if you are afraid to go to the brink, than you will lose.
-kept the peace with containment ande the idea that you must play to the limit.
CIA, Alan Dulles
-much more respectable job (gov. spy)
- goal is to infiltrate communist countries and undermine leftist governments
-insert pro-western, pro-capitalism
-Alan was the 1st director of CIA
Department of Defense Founded
-unified armies, marines, navies, airports
-created a massive centralized defense establishment
Korrean Conflict
-Dramatic example of psychology
- north korea-commmunism
-south-korea-developing capitalism
-north crossede the 38th parallell and started fighting
-u.s. troops moved in, caused conflict not war.
-war happened because when debating on what to do, soviets walked out and they werent there to vote and veto the debate.
-came out the same way before the conflict. basically a tie
House of un-American activities committee.
-held hearings on communist governments
-Nixon accused Alger Hiss of being a soviet spy (he knew this because he a reformed communist said he worked with Hiss. Alger convicted of perjury.)
GI Bill
FDR signed it
-provided economic safety net for returning servicemen.
-unemplyment compensation, medical care, morgage funds
-huge mass of americans could now afford homes
-gave them a chance to go to college
-more enlisted, because of the benefits
Consolodation of Big Labor
AFL=Aristocrats of labor (skilled union)
CIO= industrial orgs (unskilled laborers)
-By combining, they negotiated huge contracts for huge sections of the economy that would cover everyone skilled and unskilled
-negotiated good wages, better conditions, steady raises, costs of living adjustments, etc.
Benjamin Spock, Baby and Child Care
emphasized child rearing
-said never let the child cry
-let the child's adventurous side run amuck in the house
-dont curb creative instincts
- if they get muddy, throw paint all over the house, its okay because its creative
-instant gratification = child sad-mom comforts = child bored- mom amuse
"Leave it to Beaver", "I Love Lucy"
-iincluded the whole family
-intorduction of child stars
- self-fulfilled and self-realized citizens who bought things
-ethnic tensions
-only diversity on tv
-gender tensions (lucy always wanted a "mans job")
Dwight MacDonald
-dissenting voice
Beat Generation
-produced prodigious literaturer questiong role of life of people in the 50's
Peace Corps
during the age of rebellion
-an unsusual program for the time
-it sent volunteers(not soldiers) out to assist in the development of 3rd world countries
-spreading culture(mission, democracy, honesty) to other countries
Martin Luther King Jr.
fought for black equalirt
-emerged in south with tremendous power
-espoused the tactics of Gahndi (non-violent civil disobedoience)
-sit-ins, and protests
-wanted equal citizenship
-murdered during a public speech
Brown v Board of Education
-fought for an end to "seperate but equal schools"
-wanted all jim crow laws abolished
-NAACP worked very hard on it
-Thurgood Marshall wants desegregaation in 1 year
-went through, and it was what blacks had been waiting for
-first step towards a fair equality
Malcom X
-black radicalist
- said march on washington was afarce
- it was a circus manipulated by whites
-he said that blacks couldnt make a deal with the devil
-many young voices began to shift the focus of black integration (civil rightrs) to black pride and third shift to "BLACK POWER"
Betty Friedman, The Feminine Mystique
-intellectual push of women's movement
-including, divorce, birth control, equal pay, et. cetera.
- DEMANDED equal pay
-wanted real changes
Black Panthers
-very broad-based agenda, but got money through the little red book
-bought books wholesale and sold them to grad students
-sold tons to carry on program
-preached separation, said integration would not work, blacks had to take power because they would nevere be given it
-u.s. would move in with advisors and money to make sure that communist insurgents would not prevail
-u.s. believed that we coulod prevail agains communists by having the fastest moving troops and most-sophisticated weapons.
-began with Vietnam
Lyndon B. Johnson
-when kennedy was assassinated, lbj was moved to president
-carried on the idea of helping south korea
-he ran for a second term and won as "peace candidate"
-he realized that just sending advisors there would not work, he had to send troops
-huge (500,000) troops in vietnam
using a poison to disentigrate the jungle of vietnam and expose their hiding places.
-posioned some of our own troops
-killed many, and still paying for it
Viet Cong
-contained rebels
-indistinguishable from everyone else in south korea
-who we wanted to get rid of
-we were unable to quell the insurgency
-caused problems, because it was a guessing game.
-troops fired at anyone they suspected might be hiding something
-Students for a Democratic society
-very well organized and eventually got grants to further protest
-looked at poverty and racism in this country
-very young, hippies
Domino Theory
- once south korea fell, lots of other countries still needed help
-this called for more troops in the pacific
-many people saw it as too simplistic
-youth international
-jerry rubin and abbie hoffm
-mocked everything in consumer culture
-pigasus>pig=yippie pres candidate
-he got up and squeled on platforms "sounds better than other candidates"
-condoned drugs, lsd, acid
-threatened to put drugs into the water supply to make everyone happy
-this terrified middle-class families
Tet Offensive
-U.s. military planners and president and petagon said they were in the last stage of war, close to winning
-this was wrong, the VC was very strong
-it actually controlled part of the u.s. embassy in saigon
-was meant to boost morale, but people just lost hope because they were lied to
Eugene McCarthy
-democrat that challenged LBJ
-peace candidate
-almost worked
-LBJ went on tv to say that he would not run again
George Wallace
-governor of alabama
- ran for the American Party
- had national agenda for speaking to anti-war movement
-students have no ethics and they are dirty and he wanted to restore order and law
- wanted to keep fed. gov and outside governors out of the state
-issue of law and order nopt race and segregations
-attempted assasination, ended up paraplegic
1968 Democratic Convention
-televised, heavily protected, high security
-police used tear gas and clubs (unnessecary)
-democrats nominated herbert humphrey
-lots of scandal and dusruption
-teetering on the brink of total chaos
Richard M. Nixon
-dependable cold warrior, strenght in foreign affairs, anti-communist, anti-hippie, pro-middle class.
-appealed to silent majority (those that got up, went to work, etc.)
-eventually resigned from office because of the watergate scandal
Jimmy Carter
-after nixon resigned, americans didnt know what to think about american ideals
- symbolized retrenchment of American way of life
-said he would never lie to the public
-promised a gov. as good as the american people
-mod. dem. that distanced himself from radicals.
-emphasize human rights and honesty
-said it would be true on domestic and foreign front.
-he won
-stagnant economy
- days of cheap oil were ending
- cost of energy was skyrocketing
- result was unemployment
-inflation was double in digits
economic growth rate was under 2%
-made it impossible for carter to win a second term
Ronald Reagan
-regenerated american values
- led by grassroots party
- the republicn party was remade
- sense of humor, former movie star, president of SAG
-terrified of communism
-very popular
-product of the grassroots movement
THe New Right
-reagan in charge
-wanted to cut back on governemnt
-didnt want gov. intruding in their lives
-objective was to cut spending and taxes
- wanted smaller government
-Richard Viguerie one of the leaders of NR
-wanted to become a formidale right wing movement
THe Moral Majority
-started by Jerry Falwell
-disturbed promiscuity of the 60's
- working ot clean up their communities and schools
-focused on the abortion decison of ROe v Wade(abortion in first trimester)
-targeted hollywood as well
Sun Belt
-demorgraphic manifestation of Reagans revolutionary ideals