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109 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The wealthy were who?
bankers, manufacturers, and merchants
What did the market revolution cause for the class system?
A bigger gap between the rich and the poor.
Who made up the middle class?
Prosperous artisans, farmers, lawyers, ministers,shopkeepers and their family.
The rise of the middle class led to...?
A greater specialization of male and female roles.
Men were incharge of bringing home money from work (factories, mills, offices, and shops).
Women cared for the children and did housework.
What did the factory system do?
replaced skilled workpeople with machines that did everything under one roof.
-At first the system was praised
Lowell girls...?
They were young, single women who used to work on New England Farms.
-they worked in factories
-They did not have to get paid as much because they weren't the "bread winner"
How did farming technologically develop?
Plow
-development of mechanical reaper(McCormick)
-John Deere designed a light but strong steel plow
Labor Unions...?
A group of people who take part in the same labor/job that come together to make their work conditions better.
National Trades Union...?
-1834
-sought for things like shorter work days
-President Jackson responded by giving them a 10 hour day
Growth in Immigration: Irish
-Largest group
-discrimination, hunger, and poverty drove them away from Ireland
-Could not afford land in US, settled in cities to work low paying, dangerous jobs
Growth in Immigration:Germans
-second largest group
-mainly protestants
-most came for economic opportunity
-many went into skilled occupations
What is the nativists response?
Native born Americans protested the arrival of immigrants
-Thought they were politically corrupt and socially inferior
The American Party--> the Know-Nothings
-Goal was to restrict immigrants right to vote and hold public office
-supported only native born Protestants for office
Cotton Gin...?
-Eli Whitney
-made it possible to remove seed from cotton faster
Manufactoring in the Upper south..?
-Brickyards, ironworks, sawmills, textile mills, and tobacco factories
Industrialization developed more slowly in the South than the North because...?
--most southern investors put their money in land and slaves rather than in new factories
--planters used their influence to discourage states from imposing taxes to fund improvements that might have promoted manufacturing
--factory workers were in short supply because the region’s reliance on slave labor discouraged immigrants from coming to the south
--the market for manufactured goods suffered from the fact that slaves and poor whites had little or no purchasing power
what is another name for the pre-Civil War period?
Antebellum period
What is the difference between wage slaves and slaves?
-Wage slaves were paid a very small wage unlike normal slaves
-Virginia lawyer and writer George Fitzhugh suggested that slaves were actually treated better than wage earners in factories and mines
How did slaves rebel?
-fake illness, slow work pace, steal property, damage tools etc.
-running away
-underground railroad-Harriet Tubman (of MD)
slave codes...?
-laws making it illegal to teach slaves to read and placed increased restrictions on slaves’ movements
Olive Branch Petition...?
-Sent to the King to ask him to just end the conflict and let there be peace. He says no and declares war.
Thomas Paine ..?
wrote Commonsense
Richard Henry Lee
June 7th 1776: stands up in the Second Continental Congress and says that he thinks that the colony should be free.
Confederation...?
states have more power than the president
Federation...?
president has more power than the states
Committee is formed to write the Independence Declaration:
Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin, and John Adams.
John Locke
a British philosopher from the 17th century and he is a social contract theorist.
-said that there would be problems in a state of nature. We are reasonable beings and that which is natural is a right. Property is what makes us secure and that of which we work for.
George Washington
the first President
was the unanimous choice
challenges for congress:
-federal court system
-to add a bill of rights to the Constitution
the Judiciary Act of 1789
-established a federal district court for each state
-specified that there would be six justices of the Supreme Court to be nominated by the president and approved by the Senate
-defined the court’s’ powers
Congress created three departments to assist the president...which were?
--the State Departmentforeign affairs
--the War Departmentmilitary affairs
--the Treasury Departmentfinances
president’s cabinet
President appointed the secretaries, or heads, of each department to serve as his advisers
Precedent:
though Congress is responsible for passing laws, from the beginning it sought guidance from the executive branch
Hamilton
-Aid to Washington during the war
-delegate to the Constitutional Convention
-helped write the Federalist Papers
--believed the countries future depended on a strong federal government controlled by the wealthy
capitalism
economic system in which private businesses run most industries, and competition determines how much goods cost and workers are paid
Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations
-stated that industry and commerce-not just farming-were the most important sources of wealth
Hamilton’s Proposals
-Hamilton advised Congress to begin paying off the National Debt
*most money obtained by selling bonds
*Hamilton wanted to pay them off in full (makes the rich even richer)
-next he suggested that the federal govt. assume the large majority of states debts
-asked congress to create the Bank of the United States of America or a national bank
-Hamilton next turned to paying the governments debts
*tax on whiskey producers(in the west)
compromise made by Hamilton with South:
in return for southern votes, Hamilton’s supporters pledged that the national capital would be located across the Potomac river from Virginia
Whiskey Rebellion
-500 men attacked federal officials, tarring and feathering some
-in western PA
-Washington called out militias from MD, NJ, PA and VR to put down the rebellion
Battle between Indians and Americans..
-led by Anthony Wayne
-Indians led by Little Turtle
--1794 US victorious at Battle of Fallen Timbers near Toledo, Ohio
--Treaty of Greenville which gave the US title to American Indian lands making up much of Ohio and part of Indian
Three social classes in France:
social classes: nobility, clergy and commoners
French Revolution began when?
-July 14, 1789 French revolutionaries stormed the Bastille
-into a bloodbath
Reign of Terror
-1793-1794
-revolutionaries beheaded thousands including Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette
European monarchs feared the revolution would spread...so?
thus Austria, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Prussia and Spain joined forces and declared war on France in 1792
During the war France was in what did America do? Why?
US declared neutrality because they were to young of a country to go into war.
impressment :
kidnapping and forced to serve in British Navy
-10,000 American sailors captured 1790-1812; Brits. claimed they were capturing deserters
Edmond Genet 1793
French diplomat tried to persuade Americans to honor their 1778 military alliance treaty with France
privateer
private ship authorized by a nation to attack its enemies
Jay’s Treaty
-In Northwest Territory the British supplied Indians with weapons
--Brits agreed to abandon northwest forts
--US agreed to pay debt owed to Britain
Pinckney’s Treaty
-recognized the southern boundary of the US with Spanish Florida as the 31st parallel
-guaranteed US navigation rights on the Mississippi
-gave Americans the right of deposit (to temporarily unload goods at New Orleans with paying a duty to Spain)
Washingtons farewell speech
-farewell speech urged neutrality abroad and unity at home
-warned of dangers posed by political groups and regional interests
sectionalism:
loyalty to one part of the country over the others
Federalist Party
merchants, manufacturers, lawyers, and church leaders from New England and the Atlantic seaboard
--“those who own the country ought to govern it.” (Wanted the wealthy to govern)
-promote the development of commerce
Democratic-Republican Party
-planters, small farmers, wage earners, artisans, workers, and trades people
-believed farmers deserved the greatest voice in government
xyz affair-
-for the US to apologize publicly for anti-French remarks made by Adams
-to grant France a multimillion dollar loan
-pay a bribe of $250,000
-Adams published the demands with x, y, and z substituted for the names of the French agents
Alien and Sedition Acts
were a series of laws intended to protect the nation and to weaken the Republicans
Election of 1800
Federalist Party was slipping
-Republicans took control of Congress at this election
12th Amendment
was ratified in 1804 requiring electors to vote for presidential and vice presidential candidates on separate ballots
midnight judges
Adams appointed Federalists to these posts in his last hours in office
The Louisiana Territory
-Held by Spain since 1762
-Napoleon regained the land from Spain
-1803 James Monroe sent to Paris to negotiate a US port at the mouth of the Mississippi for access to New Orleans
-authorized to offer France $10 million for New Orleans and west Florida
-Napoleon offered all of Louisiana to the US
-Monroe agreed to $15 million (4 cents and acre)
Lewis and Clark
assigned the task of mapping and exploring the newly acquired territory
-Sacagawea was their Indian guide
Louisiana Purchase
added 13 future states
-increased size made the US seem more important to other countries
Tecumseh curses
--zero year curse
--proclaimed the death of American Presidents elected every 20 years, or years ending in zero
Thomas Hooker
he started Connecticut because of religious differences and towns being too close to each other
Rodger Williams
founded Rhode Island
- He believed in something very different from the New England Way
- Believed the better way is separation of Church and State
- USA today is supposed to be separated
Prehistory-
history before there was writing
Humans first come to North America over...?
land bridge
Paleo-Indians
They were hunters-gathers, nomads. They knew how to create fire
Clovis points
are a type of spear head
The Olmec
-Small pyramids
-Stone cravings
-calendars
-plants
Maya
-originally from Mexico and Guatemala
-The Mayans were very much ahead of Europe
-they developed the number zero
-They had a complete writing system
-Used glyphs
-They had a much better calendar than the Europeans
-They traded with other cultures
-Began to decline in 900 AD
-The Mayans have a common birthmark that is a circle at the base of their spine if they are 100% pure Mayan
Two theories about where the Mayans went…
-Lack of rainfall caused them to die out; they killed each other off because of lack of water
The Toltec and the Aztec
The Great city is called Tula which became a trading center. (Toltec city)
They were absorbed by the Aztecs
They built a city which is now Mexico City- Tenochtitlin
Spaniards destroyed this
The Aztecs had an empire including 5 million
There was a class system
Made rich with gold, silver, and gems/stones
They made the people they conquered pay them
The upper class was made of priests and such
Warfare was a sacred duty
The Sun God was doing battle the Night god every night
The prisoners of war were the ones who were sacrificed
Inca
South America
They were farmers on the Pacific Coast
The Andes Mountains run through this coast
The Amazon flows left to east
Cuzco was the capital city in the Andes
12 million people
20 different languages
The people they captured had to work for them but they didn’t have to pay tribute
first colony in North America...?
-1000 AD
-Did not work out
Vasco da Gama
sailed around Africa to get to India
What does Columbus want to do to the Indians?
-Make them into slaves
-The Indians were wearing gold so he thinks that they know where the gold is
He builds the fort out of the wrecked ship
Encomienda System
Indians were forced to work and were paid
-Later they were just slaves (not paid)
-They were later paid by being converted to Christianity and being allowed to grow their own food
Priest- Las Casas
-First person to speak out against the way the Indians were being treated
Explorer:Balboa
Spanish, explores Panama, crosses the Ismas, first to see the Pacific Ocean
Explorer: Magellan
travels around the southern tip of South America, trying to get around the Americas, lands in the Philippines, gets killed there
Explorer: Cabesa de Vaca
landed near Texas, walked to New Mexico
Explorer: Fernando Disoto
explored the south east and Mississippi river
Explorer: Cortes
Conquistador, conquers the Aztecs
1519 cortes sets out to Mexico
Many of the people are unhappy with the Aztec’s rule
They were made to pay taxes
For the first time ever they saw a person riding on a horse
Explorer: Pizzaro
13 years later. Advantage: He learned from the writing of Cortes
Pizzaro was out numbered less than 200 men to 80,000 men. He conquered them in days
Treaty of Tordesillas
-A line drawn to separate the land found by the Portuguese and Spanish
Two sections are set aside for..?
1. School
2. Veterans
Daniel Shay’s
led 1200 farmers because they didn’t have money. State of Massachusetts put a tax on land. Land gets taken away if you don’t pay tax on it
How do they count population with the slaves? Count them or no?
Slaves are considered 3/5 of a person
Anti-Federalists
They did not want a federal government. They were mainly from the south
Federalist paper number 10
-With a central government they could deal with special interest groups
Ex: KKK
Federalist Paper number 51
-balance of powers
-no one branch can have too much power because they are checked by the other groups
Elastic clause
flexibility, Make all laws that are necessary
Also called the necessary and proper clause
No one branch has the power to become too powerful
nationalism
pride in your nation
Federalists collapse begins ...?
“Era of Good Feelings”
Treaty of Tordesillas
-A line drawn to separate the land found by the Portuguese and Spanish
Two sections are set aside for..?
1. School
2. Veterans
Daniel Shay’s
led 1200 farmers because they didn’t have money. State of Massachusetts put a tax on land. Land gets taken away if you don’t pay tax on it
How do they count population with the slaves? Count them or no?
Slaves are considered 3/5 of a person
Anti-Federalists
They did not want a federal government. They were mainly from the south
The American System
proposal to increase federal involvement in the economy
Monroe Doctrine
-President Monroe put forth the Monroe Doctrine in his state of the Union Address in 1823
--vowed that the US would not interfere with any existing European colonies in Latin America
--but, it would consider any European attempt to regain former colonies or establishment of new ones in the western hemisphere as “dangerous to our peace and safety”
Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817
each nation pledged to limit naval presence on the Great Lakes
Federalists collapse begins ...?
“Era of Good Feelings”
three features to the American System
1. called for a national bank to provide sound currency and free the govt from borrowing from different banks
2. called for a protective tariff to encourage industrial development
3. a national transportation system to unite northern manufacturers, western farmers and southern planters
Tariff of 1816
Tariff Act of 1816 placed a 25% duty on most imported goods
The Market Revolution
-improved transportation led to the first national market
-regions no longer had to be self sufficient
--people could import needed goods and produce that which was most profitable
-increased farmers’ and manufacturers’ profits and changed the way they worked and did business
--towns along the rails grew and those off line withered
The Industrial Revolution
skilled labor to unskilled labor
change in perception of these workers
wage slavery
checks and balances
How the three branches of government check each other.