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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Progressive presidents
TR, WW, Taft; expansive view of nation's global interest; new willingness to use military; TR established American dominance in Caribbean; open market in China; Panama Canal; WW actively intervened in Carribbean and Mexico, especially
Roots of Expansion
1. Search for new markets
2. popularity of Social Darwinism
3. social anxieties about the end of the frontier
4. emergence of influential advocates of expansion
1960s- 1970s
Isolationism attitude dominant amoung people and Congress; internal developments and westward expansion favored over external expansion; geographic distance protected America from Europe; did not have means to be involved globally- lacked global strategy, good Navy, and vision of America's role in the world
William Seward
Secretary of State, expansionist; believed America should have global influence; foreshadowed American foreign policy in next century; wanted dominance in Latin America and wanted to reach into Asian markets; negotiated a treaty with Nicarague to build a Pacific-Atlantic canal; annexed the Midway Islands opening commercial routes to Asia but the Senate didn't pass them because of Johnson's impeachment proceedings
Seward's Folly
purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867; added more than twice the area of Texas to the Union and many rich mineral resources
Alabama claims
People wanted Great Britian to pay for damage done to the Union by English-built Confederate ships; Charles Sumner said Great Britain owed the U.S. $2.1 billion or Canada; in 1872 the U.S. was given $15.5 million by Britain
Josiah Strong
Congregational minister; U.S. "divinely commissioned" to spread Protestant Christiantiy and civilized values
Alfred Thayer Mahan
"The Influence of Sea Power on History", 1890; said control of internal communications was key to success in modern wars; said national power depended on sea power; said U.S. must build a Navy capable of carrying a battle to an enemy, not just holding the coastline; believed in Social Darwinism that powerful nations feel obligated to rule weaker nations; supported U.S. and Pacific colonies link by a Canal
Naval Act of 1890
authorized the building of 3 huge battleships; act came after Congress had issued building many more boats since 1893
First International American Conference
1889; organized by Blaine (Sec. of St.) to discuss creation of inter-American market among 17 Latin American countries; failed but did establish first Pan-American highway system
Reciprocity tariff
1890; allowed certain Latin American goods like coffe, hides and sugar to enter U.S. freely if U.S. exports could enter etheir country freely; boomed trade with Cuba and Brazil; goodwill ended when America fought with Anti-American Chileans and 2 Americans were killed; Chileaen government paid $75,000 to America
Great Britian-American tensions
centered on fishing rights of U.S. in Canada; in 1886 Canadians began seizing American vessels so Congress allowed President Cleveland to ban Canadian ships from U.S. waters and the U.S. began capturiing Candian ships off of Alaska so the British sent warships in; an international arbitration ruled for the U.S. to pay damages to Canada
McKinley Tariff and Queen Liliuokalani
McKinley Tariff ended status of Hawaiian sugar and Hawaii's economy collapsed Queen Lilioukalani took the throne and abolish the planter's "Bayonet Constitution" to increase the power of native Hawaiians and decrease power of planters
John L. Stevens:
White planation owner who launched an armed revolt headed, without U.S. authority, against the Hawaiians; Queen Liliuokalani surrended after 3 days and a provisional government was established until Hawaii's annexation in Febuary
U.S.S. Maine
1898; destroyedin Cuba Havana Harboa by an unknown source; 260 U.S. soliders killed; afterwards McKinley asked Congress for %50 million to mobilize for war after the Spain refused to pay indemnities, abolish its reconcentration camps, make a truce, and negotiate for Cuban independence- Spain accepted all conditions but the last so McKinley declared war
Teller Amendment
America would not extend any government over Cuba, but would leave that to the cuban people
Rough Riders
Organized by Teddy Roosevelt who had quit his position as assistant secretary of the Navy to fight; included wealthy men educated at Ivy-Leagues backed by cowboys TR met in the Dakotas; fought at Kettle Hill with black troops and won but still had a large number of casualities
Anti-Imperialist League
"Belief in a Republic against Empire"; grew rapidly in opposition to McKinley's philosophy in the Phillippines; included members like former Presidents Johnson and cleveland, Jane Addams, Samuel Gompers, and Carnegie; many members had racial prejudices that dark-skinned people couldn't handle self-government, that the large defense program would limit freedom within the United States, and that the consistution had not given the federal government the power to acquire territory; the main argument was that aggressive foreign policy was against American liberty
Treaty of Paris
1898; U.S. pays $20 million for Phillippines and Puerto Rico; barely ratified by the South who was divided by imepralism and anti-imperialism
Platt Amendment
Gave U.S. rights to intervene in Cuban afairs, required Cuban government to limit its debt with European nations and prohibited negotiating treaties with foreign powers; U.S. forced new Cuban consistution to accept this; lasted until 1934
General Leonard Wood
Military commander of Cuba; established a democratic procedure for election of delegates to Cuban constitutional convention which adopted a constitution like the U.S.'s and was presumed to include the Platt Amendment
Foraker Act of 1900
Made Puerto Rico an "unincorporated territory" subject to the laws of Congress but governed by the War Department; residents could elect the Lower House but not appoint govenor, heads of executive department, or elect the Upper House; Insular cases upheld the act
Insular Cases
upheld the Foraker Act of 1900 saying the United States could annex an area, make it an "unincorporated territory" but refuse to grant the people citizenship
John Hay
Secretary of State; formed the American Asiatic Association to promote trade and development with China; sent "Open Door" notes to America's rivals in China asking them to guarantte that ports would be open to all nations and not offer special priviledges to anyone; Hayes said it was victorious even though other nation's answers were ambiguous
formed in 1899; radical antiforeign and militaristic society; formally called the "Righteous and Harmonious Fists"; murdered foreigners; had seized capitol by June and were beseiging areas where foreignors had lived; 1900 U.S. and others made an international delegation to lift the seige
Open Door Notes no. 2
Asked all powers to preserve "Chinese territorial and administrative integrity"; accepted by Russia, Japan, Germany, and Britian; significant for extending American influence in the East; U.S. demanded open commerical dealings with China and also obligated itself to maintaining China's political integrity even though it lacked the military might to do so; did not invoke notes unntil 1930s when Japan was acting aggressively toward China
Panama Canal terms
U.S. had originally chosen Nicaragua to build through; 99 year lease on a 6-mile-wide-zone across the isthumus of Panama for an initial payment of $10 million; TR said Panama should revolt from Colombia so they did; in 1903 Panama was liberated and gave the U.S. a 10-mile strip for the same price
Root-Takahira Agreement
1908; afffirmed pledge to Open Door but accepted Japan's control of S. Manchuria; represented TR's attempt to balance America's ambitions in E. Asia with the real interest and ability to defend them
Lodge Resolution
said no non-American corporation or Association could obtain strategic lands in the w. hemisphere; extended the compass of the Monroe Doctrine to companies, not just governments; used the resolution to stop land transfers from Mexico to Japan
"substituting bullets for dollars"; believed the U.S. could reorder the world through marketplace supremacy; believed the biggest threat to American security was Europeans collecting on defaluted loans so he replaced European loans with America money; increased American investment in Central America; extensive experience in foreign affairs from first being governor of Phillippines, then Secretary of War; conducted negoations with Japan, Cuba, and Panama; as president lacked flexibility, energy, and forcefulness along with Secret of State Knox